Home » Posts tagged 'Europe'
Tag Archives: Europe
Another day, another slew of articles full of fear mongering. This one is on sperm decline in the West. Is it true? I have recently covered on this blog that as of July 17th, 2017, the testosterone range for men decreased (more on that when I get access to the paper). I have also covered the obesity epidemic a bit, and that also factors in to lowered testosterone and, of course, low spermatoza count. Due to these environmental factors, we can logically deduce that sperm counts have fallen as well. However, as I will cover, it may not be so cut and dry due to analyzing numerous studies with different counting methodologies among numerous other confounds that will be addressed below. First I will cover the physiology of sperm production and what may cause decreases in production. Next, I will cover the new study that is being passed around. Finally, I will talk about why you should worry about this.
Physiology of sperm production
The accumulation of testosterone by ABP leads to the onset and rising rate of sperm production. So if testosterone production ceases or decreases, then subsequent decreases in sperm count and spermatogenesis should follow. If this change is drastic, infertility will soon follow. The process of sperm production is called spermatogenesis. It occurs in the seminiforous tubules and involves three main events: 1) remodeling relatively large germ cells into smaller mobile cells with flagella, 2) reducing the chromosome number by half, and 3) shuffling the genes so that each chromosome in the sperm carries novel gene combinations that differ from the parents. This is what ensures that a child will differ from their parents but still, at the same time, will be similar to them. The process by which this occurs is called meiosis, in which four daughter cells split which subsequently differentiate sperm (Saladin, 2010: 1063).
After the conclusion of meiosis I, each chromosome is still double stranded, except each daughter cell only has 23 chromosomes becoming a haploid while at the end of meiosis II, there are four haploid cells with 23 single-stranded chromosomes. Fertilization then combined the 23 chromosomes from the father and mother, which “reestablishes the diploid number of 46 chromosomes in the zygote“(Saladin, 2010: 1063-1064).
Spermatogonia divide by mitosis and then enlarge to become primary spermatocyte. The cell is then protected from the immune system since it is going to become genetically different from the rest of the cells in the body. Since the cells are guarded from the body’s immune system, the main spermatocyte undergoes meiosis I, giving rise to equal size haploid and genetically unique secondary spermatocytes. Then, each secondary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis II dividing into two spermatids with a total of four spermatogoniom. Lastly, the spermatozoa undergo no further division but undergoes spermiogenesis in which it differentiates into a single spermatozoon (Saladin, 2010: 1065-1066). Young men produce about 300,000 sperm per minute, about 400 million per day.
The new study was published on July 25, 2017, in the journal Human Reproduction Update titled Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Levine et al (2017) used 185 studies (n=42,935) and showed a sperm count (SC) decline of .75 percent per year, coming out to a 28.5 percent decrease between 1975 and 2011. Similar declines were seen in total sperm count (TSC) while 156 estimates of serum volume showed little change.
Figure 2a shows the mean sperm concentration between the years 1973 and 2011. Figure 2b shows the mean total sperm count between those same years.
Figure 3a shows sperm concentration for the West (North America, Australia, Europe and New Zealand) vs Other (South America, Asia, and Africa), adjusted for potential confounders such as BMI, smoking etc. Figure 3b shows total sperm count by fertility and the West and Other. You can see that Fertile Other had a sharp increase, but the increase may be due to limited statistical power and a lack of studies of unselected men from those countries before 1985. There is a sharp increase for Other, however and so the data does not support as sharp of a decline as observed in Western countries.
If this is true, why is this happening? Factors that decrease spermatogenesis include (but are not limited to): obesity, smoking, exposure to traffic exhaust fumes, and combustion products. Though there is no data (except animal models) that lend credence to the idea that pesticides, food additives, etc decrease spermatogenesis (Sharpe, 2010). Other factors are known to cause lower SC which includes maternal smoking, alcohol, stress, endocrine disruptors, persistent and nonpersistent chemicals, and, perhaps most importantly today, the use of mobile phones and the wireless Internet (Virtanen, Jorgansen, and Toparri, 2017). Radiation exposure due to constant mobile phone use may cause DNA fragmentation and decreased sperm mobility (Gorpinchenko et al, 2014). Clearly, most of this decrease can largely be ameliorated. Exercise, eating right, and not smoking seem to be the most immediate changes that can and will contribute to an increase in SC in Western men. This will also increase testosterone levels. The cause is largely immobility due to the comfortable lifestyles that we in the West have. So by becoming more active and putting down smartphones, we can then begin to reverse this downward trend.
Saladin (2010: 1067) also states that pollution has deleterious effects on reproduction—and by proxy, sperm production. He states that the evidence is mounting that we are showing declining fertility due to “anatomical abnormalities” in water, meat, vegetables, breast milk and the uterus. He brings up that sperm production decreased in 15,000 men in 1990, decreasing from 113 million/ml in 1940 to 66 million/ml in 1990. Sperm production decreased more, he says, since “the average volume of semen per ejaculate has dropped 19% over this period” (Saladin, 2010: 1067).
Saladin (2010: 1067) further writes:
The pollutants implicated in this trend include a wide array of common herbicides, inseciticides, industrial chemicals, and breakdown products of materials ranging from plastics to dishwashing detergents. Some authorities think these chemicals act by mimicking estrogens by blocking the action of testosterone by binding to its receptors. Other scientists, however, question the data and feel the issue may be overstated. While the debate continues, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is screening thousands of industrial chemicals for endocrine effects.
Is it really true?
As seen above, the EPA is investigating whether thousands of industrial chemicals of effects on our endocrine system. If this is true, it occurs due to the binding of these chemicals to androgen receptors, blocking the production of testosterone and thusly sperm production. However, some commentators have contested the results of studies that purport to show a decrease in SC in men over the decades.
Sherins and Delbes are critical of such studies. They rightly state that most of these studies have numerous confounds such as:
1) lack of standardized counting measures, 2) bias introduced by using different counting methodologies, 3) inadequate within-individual semen sampling in the analysis, 4) failure to account for variable abstinence intervals and ejaculatory frequency, 5) failure to assess total sperm output rather than concentration, 6) failure to assess semen parameteres other than the number of sperm, 7) failure to account for age of subject, 8) subject selection bias among comparitive studies, 9) inappropriate statistical analysis, 10) ignoring major geographic differences in sperm counts, and 11) the causal equating of male ferility with sperm count per se.
Levine et al (2017) write:
We controlled for a pre-determined set of potential confounders: fertility group, geographic group, age, abstinence time, whether semen collection and counting methods were reported, number of samples per man and indicators for exclusion criteria (Supplementary Table S1).
So they covered points 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. This study is very robust. Levine et al (2017) replicate numerous other studies showing that sperm count has decreased in Western men (Centola et al, 2015; Senputa et al, 2017; Virtanen, Jorgensen, and Toparri, 2017). Men Southern Spain show normal levels (Fernandez et al, 2010), while Southern Spanish University students showed a decrease (Mendiola et al, 2013). The same SC decrease has been noted in Brazil in the last ten years (Borges Jr. et al, 2015).
However, te Velde and Bonde (2013) in their paper Misconceptions about falling sperm counts and fertility in Europe contest the results of studies that argue that SC has decreased within the last 50 years stating that, for instance in Denmark, the median values remained between 40-45 million sperm per ml in the 15 years analyzed. They also state that declining birth rates can be explained by cultural and social factors, such as contraception, the female emancipation, and the second demographic transition. Clearly, ferility rates are correlated with the human development index (HDI) meaning that more developed countries have a lower birth rate in comparison to less developed countries. I believe that part of the reason why we in the West have lower birth rates is because there are too many things to for us to do to occupy our time, time that could be used to have children, like going to school to pursue Masters degrees and PhDs, to just wanting more ‘me time’.
Te Velde and Bonde (2013) conclude:
‘Whether the sperm concentration and human fecundity have declined during the past 50 years is a question we will probably never be able to answer’. This statement by Olsen and Rachootin in 200348 still holds for sperm concentration despite the report in 1992. In the meantime, we know that the results of oft-repeated studies from Copenhagen and Malmö do not indicate any notable change in sperm count during the last 10–15 years. Moreover, none of the available evidence points to a decline in couple fecundity during the last 30–40 years, including Denmark.28 Moreover, birth rates and TFRs instead of declining are on the increase in many EU countries, including the spectacular rise in Denmark.34
Echoing the same sentiments, Cocuzza and Esteves (2014) conclude “that there is no enough evidence to confirm a worldwide decline in sperm counts or other semen parameters. Also, there is no scientific truth of a causative role for endocrine disruptors in the temporal decline of sperm production as observed in some studies. We conjecture that a definite conclusion would only be achieved if good quality collaborative long-term research was carried out, including aspects such as semen quality, reproductive hormones, and xenobiotics, as well as a strict definition of fecundity.” Merzenich, Zeeb, and Blettner (2010) also caution that “The observed time trend in semen quality might be an artefact, since the methodological differences between studies might be time dependent as well. Intensive research will be necessary in both clinical and epidemiological domains. More studies are needed with strict methodological standards that investigate semen quality obtained from large samples of healthy men representative for the normal male population.”
Clearly, this debate is long and ongoing, and I doubt that even Levine et al (2017) will be good enough for some researchers.
There are various papers for and against a decrease in sperm production in the West, just like with testosterone. However, there are ways we can deduce that SC has fallen in the West, since we have definitive data that testosterone levels have decreased. This, then, would lead to a decrease in sperm production and then fecundity and number of children conceived by couples. Of course, sociocultural factors are involved, as well as immediate environmental ones that are immediately changeable. Even if there is no scientific consensus on industrial chemicals and effects on the endocrine system, you should stay away from those too. One major reason for the decrease in sperm production—if the decrease is true—is increased mobile phone usage. Mobile phone usage has increased and so this would lower SC over time.
Whether or not the decrease in SC is true or not, every man should take steps to lead a healthier lifestyle without their cell phone. Because if this decrease is true (and Other doesn’t show a decrease as well) then it would be due to the effects of our First World societies, which would mean that we need to change how we live our lives to get back on the right track. Clearly, we must change our diets and our lifestyles. I’ve written numerous articles about how testosterone is strongly mediated by the environment, and that testosterone production in men has decreased since Western men have been, in a way, feminized and not been as dominant. This can and does decrease testosterone production which would, in turn, decrease sperm production and decrease fertility rates.
Nevertheless, taking steps to leading a healthier lifestyle will ameliorate a ton of the problems that we have in the West, which are mainly due to low birth rates, and by ameliorating these problems, the quality of life will the increase in the West. I am skeptical of the decrease due to what was brought up above, but nevertheless I assume that it is true and I hope my readers do too—if only to get some fire under you to lead a healthier lifestyle if you do not do so already as to prevent these problems before they occur and lead to serious deleterious health consequences.
(I am undecided leaning towards yes. There are too many behaviors linked to lower SC which Western men partake in. There are numerous confounds which may have not been controlled for, however knowing the main reasons why men have lower sperm count and the increased prevalence in these behaviors, we can logically deduce that sperm count has fallen too. Look to the testosterone decrease, that causes both low sperm count and lower fertility.)
Some people are scared of testosterone. This is no surprise, since a super-majority of people have no background in the human sciences. I’m sure plenty men know what it’s like to have low testosterone, just like some men know what it’s like to have higher T levels than average. What is the optimum level of testosterone? Why are some people scared of this hormone?
Rushton (1997) posited that r/K Selection Theory could be used to classify the races of Man on a spectrum, going from r-selection (having many children but showing little to no parental care) to K-selection (having fewer children but showing a lot of parental care). He stated that the traits of the races were also on the r/K spectrum, with the races having stark differences in morphology. Rushton’s application of r/K theory to humans isn’t completely wrong, though I do have some problems with some of his claims, such as his claims that the races differ in average penis size. He contends that testosterone is the cause for higher crime rates for black Americans and higher rates of prostate cancer in black Americans compared to white Americans.
However, in 2014, Richard et al showed that when controlling for age, blacks had 2.5 to 4.9 percent more testosterone than whites, on average. This cannot explain racial differences in prostate cancer. However, some people may emphatically claim that the races differ in average testosterone, with blacks having 13 percent higher free testosterone than whites on average. The citation that gets used the most to prove that blacks supposedly have higher testosterone than whites is Ross et al (1986), which is based on a sample of 100 people (50 black, 50 white). He claims that it’s when T levels are higher, so it’s a ‘better study’ even though the sample leaves a lot to be desired. A much more robust study showed that the difference was negligible, and not enough to account for the differential prostate cancer rates between the races.
Rohrmann et al (2007) show that there are no differences in circulating testosterone between blacks and whites in a nationally representative sample of American men. Mexicans had the highest levels. There were, however, B-W differences in estradiol production. They couldn’t confirm the other studies that stated that blacks had higher testosterone, possibly due to variations in age or using non-representative samples (that’s the culprit). Their nationally representative sample showed there was no difference in testosterone between blacks is whites, while the meta-analysis showed by Richard et al (2014) showed the difference was negligible at 2.5 to 4.9 percent higher rate of testosterone which doesn’t explain why blacks have a higher rate of acquiring prostate cancer.
The much more likely culprit for blacks having higher rates of prostate cancer, as I have written about before, are environmental factors. The two main factors are receiving less sunlight and diet. There is no evidence that higher levels of testosterone lead to prostate cancer (Michaud, Billups, and Partin, 2015). Contrary to those who say that higher levels of T cause prostate cancer, there is growing evidence that lower levels of T lead to prostate cancer (Park et al, 2015). Put simply, there is no evidence for testosterone’s supposed impact on the prostate (Stattin et al, 2013).
Differences in androgen/androgen receptors have been explained as a cause for racial differences in prostate cancer (Pettaway, 1999), however, these results haven’t been consistent (Stattin et al, 2003) and these differences in circulating androgen may possibly be explained by differences in obesity between the two populations (Gapstur et al, 2002; also see my posts on obesity and race).
Due to the ‘testosterone scare’, some people may believe that having low T is a ‘good thing’, something that’s preferred over being a high T savage. However, testosterone and the androgen receptor gene polymorphism are both associated with competitiveness and confidence in men (Eisenegger et al, 2016) and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in elderly men (Ohlsson et al, 2011). Obviously, lower testosterone is related to less overall confidence. People who have the thought in their head that testosterone is a ‘bad hormone’ will believe the negativity about it in the media and popular headlines.
Testosterone alone does not cause violence, but it does cause men to be socially dominant. Testosterone has been shown to increase in the aggressive phases of sports games and when shown artificial humans made to invoke physiologic responses, leading some researchers to argue that testosterone should be classified as a stress hormone. Testosterone does change based on watching one’s favorite soccer team winning or losing in a sample of 21 men (Bernhardt et al, 1998), lending some credence to the claim that testosterone is and should be classified as a stress hormone. Also of interest is that men who administered high levels of testosterone did not report higher levels of aggression (Batrinos, 2012).
I’ve heard some people literally say that having low testosterone is ‘a good thing’. People say this out of ignorance. There are a whole slew of problems associated with low testosterone, including but not limited to: insulin resistance in diabetic men (Grossmann et al, 2008); metabolic syndrome (Tsuijimura et al, 2013); muscle loss (Yuki et al, 2013); stroke and transient ischemic attack (a mini-stroke; Yeap et al, 2009); associated with elevated risk for dementia in older men (Carcaillon et al, 2014); myocardial infarction (heart attack) in diabetic men (Daka et al, 2015) etc. So it seems that the fear of testosterone from those in the anti-testosterone camp are largely blown out of proportion.
Testosterone is also a ‘food’ for the brain, with low levels being related to mental illness, sexual dysfunction, lower quality of life and cognitive impairment (Moffat et al, 2011) in both sexes (Ciocca et al, 2016). Noticed in both men in women with testosterone deficits were: cognitive impairment (reduction of working memory, episodic memory, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning and executive performance); a decrease in sexual activity; anxiety, schizophrenia, depression and stress; and alterations in cortical thickness in the brain. The fact that testosterone is so heavily important to the body’s central functioning is extremely clear. This is why it’s laughable that some people would be happy and brag about having low testosterone.
I recently came across a book called The Testosterone Hypothesis: How Hormones Regulate the Life Cycles of Civilization. Barzilai’s main premise is that the rise and fall of the West is mediated by the hormone testosterone, and due to lower testosterone levels this is one large reason for what is currently occurring in the West. The book has an extremely interesting premise. Barzilai’s hypothesis does line up with the declining levels of testosterone in America (Travison et al, 2007) though other research shows no decline in American testosterone levels from the years 88-91 to 99-04 (Nyante et al, 2007). Moreover, men who had higher level of n-6 in their blood then n-3 were far more likely to be infertile (Safarinejad et al, 2010) a marker of low testosterone (Sharpe, 2012). The ratio of n-6 to n-3 from the years 1935 to 1939 were 8.4 to 1, whereas from the years 1935 to 1985, the ratio increased to about 10 percent (Raper et al, 1992). The ratio of n-6 to n-3, on top of lowering sperm count (which is correlated with testosterone) also has negative effects on male and female cognitive ability (Lassek and Gaulin, 2011).
Barzilai’s research also corroborates Rushton’s (1986) theory of why there are lower birthrates for Europeans around the world. Rushton stated that this cycle has been noticed throughout history, with empires rising and falling due to differential birthrates between the ruling class and the ruled. Rushton also hypothesized that the cultures and gene pools associated with the Graeco-Roman empire were “evolutionary dead ends” (Rushton, 1986: 148). Knowing what we now know about the relationship between cognitive ability, testosterone, and fertility, we now have a plausible hypothesis for Rushton’s hypothesis and one of the (many) reasons why the Graeco-Roman empire collapsed. Rushton further hypothesized that the cause for lower fertility in European populations “may be partly mediated by a psychological process in which the desire to be in control of both oneself and one’s environment is taken to an extreme.” Of course there’s a good chance that this psychological process is mediated/influenced by testosterone.
Europe is the continent with the lowest fertility (ESHRE Capri Workshop Group, 2010). Testosterone has declined in Europe as a whole (Rivas et al, 2014), and this is a strong cause for the lower birthrates in Europe (along with genetic reasons) and in Finland (Perheentupa et al, 2013). The introduction of Westernized diets lowers testosterone, so this is no surprise that a reduction is seen in countries that begin to consume a Western diet. Another probable cause for lower testosterone/fertility in Europe at the moment is the large number of European men that died in WWI and WWII. Those that were more willing to fight died, meaning there was less of a chance he spread his genes. So, over time, this lead to the current cucking of Europe that we are now witnessing.
Testosterone is also hypothesized to have driven evolution (Howard, 2001). Testosterone is such an important part of human evolution and development, so much so that if we had a lower level of the hormone all throughout our evolution that we would be a different species today. Testosterone is needed for sexual functioning, good mental and brain health, fertility, cognitive ability, muscle mass retention in both young and old men, etc. Testosterone is one of the most important hormones for both men and women, and low levels for both sexes are detrimental to a high quality of life. The current data on testosterone and prostate cancer shows that higher levels of testosterone don’t contribute to prostate cancer. Testosterone, then, also isn’t a cause for the racial gap in prostate cancer because other environmental factors better explain it. If people really are happy about having lower testosterone, then I hope they have fun living a life with a low sex drive, lower cognition in old age, lower muscle mass and a higher chance of stroke and metabolic syndrome.
One of the most interesting things about testosterone is the possibility that it explains why civilizations rise and fall. There is anecdotal evidence from Rushton, as well as his theorizing that the higher classes in Rome didn’t breed which led to their downfall. We now know that lower fertility rates for men are associated with lower testosterone, so along with Barzilai’s thesis of testosterone causing the rise and fall of civilizations, Rushton’s theorizing of the cause of lower European fertility and the cause of the fall of the Graeco-Roman empire.
Testosterone is an extremely important hormone, one that drives human evolution and society formation since it’s associated with dominance and confidence. Low testosterone is looked at as ‘good’ because those with higher intelligence have lower levels of the hormone (indicated by lower confidence and having sex at a later age). I showed that the higher IQ East Asian men have a problem finding dates and being looked at as sexually attractive (even though they rated themselves as average). Along with lower East Asian fertility, specifically in Japan, does it seem to you like the high IQ people are more desired if they are having problems keeping their birthrates up? The fact of the matter is, lower levels of testosterone are correlated with lower levels of fertility. If men don’t have as much testosterone pumping through their veins, they will be less likely to have sex and thusly reproduce.
Batrinos, M. L. (2012). Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man. International Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism,10(3), 563-568. doi:10.5812/ijem.3661
Bernhardt, P. C., Jr, J. M., Fielden, J. A., & Lutter, C. D. (1998). Testosterone changes during vicarious experiences of winning and losing among fans at sporting events. Physiology & Behavior,65(1), 59-62. doi:10.1016/s0031-9384(98)00147-4
Carcaillon, L., Brailly-Tabard, S., Ancelin, M., Tzourio, C., Foubert-Samier, A., Dartigues, J., . . . Scarabin, P. (2014). Low testosterone and the risk of dementia in elderly men: Impact of age and education. Alzheimer’s & Dementia,10(5). doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.06.006
Ciocca G, Limoncin E, Gravina GL, et al. Is testosterone a food for brain? Sex Med Rev 2016;4:15-25.
Daka, B., Langer, R. D., Larsson, C. A., Rosén, T., Jansson, P. A., Råstam, L., & Lindblad, U. (2015). Low concentrations of serum testosterone predict acute myocardial infarction in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMC Endocrine Disorders,15(1). doi:10.1186/s12902-015-0034-1
Eisenegger, C., Kumsta, R., Naef, M., Gromoll, J., & Heinrichs, M. (2016). Testosterone and androgen receptor gene polymorphism are associated with confidence and competitiveness in men. Hormones and Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2016.09.011
Serum androgen concentrations in young men: a longitudinal analysis of associations with age, obesity, and race—the CARDIA male hormone study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11: 1041–7, , , , , .
Grossmann, M., Thomas, M. C., Panagiotopoulos, S., Sharpe, K., Macisaac, R. J., Clarke, S., . . . Jerums, G. (2008). Low Testosterone Levels Are Common and Associated with Insulin Resistance in Men with Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,93(5), 1834-1840. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-2177
Howard JM (2001): Androgens in human evolution. A new explanation of human evolution.
Lassek, W. D., & Gaulin, S. J. (2011). Sex Differences in the Relationship of Dietary Fatty Acids to Cognitive Measures in American Children. Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience,3. doi:10.3389/fnevo.2011.00005
Michaud, J. E., Billups, K. L., & Partin, A. W. (2015). Testosterone and prostate cancer: an evidence-based review of pathogenesis and oncologic risk. Therapeutic Advances in Urology,7(6), 378-387. doi:10.1177/1756287215597633
Moffat, S. D., Zonderman, A. B., Metter, E. J., Blackman, M. R., Harman, S. M., & Resnick, S. M. (2002). Longitudinal Assessment of Serum Free Testosterone Concentration Predicts Memory Performance and Cognitive Status in Elderly Men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,87(11), 5001-5007. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-020419
Nyante, S. J., Graubard, B. I., Li, Y., Mcquillan, G. M., Platz, E. A., Rohrmann, S., . . . Mcglynn, K. A. (2011). Trends in sex hormone concentrations in US males: 1988-1991 to 1999-2004. International Journal of Andrology,35(3), 456-466. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2011.01230.x
Ohlsson C, Barrett-Connor E, Bhasin S, et al. High serum testosterone is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events in elderly men: the MrOS (Osteoporotic Fractures in Men) study in Sweden. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58(16):1674-1681.
Park, J., Cho, S. Y., Jeong, S., Lee, S. B., Son, H., & Jeong, H. (2015). Low testosterone level is an independent risk factor for high-grade prostate cancer detection at biopsy. BJU International,118(2), 230-235. doi:10.1111/bju.13206
Perheentupa, A., Makinen, J., Laatikainen, T., Vierula, M., Skakkebaek, N. E., Andersson, A., & Toppari, J. (2012). A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men. European Journal of Endocrinology,168(2), 227-233. doi:10.1530/eje-12-0288
Pettaway CA. Racial differences in the androgen/androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer. J Natl Med Assoc 1999, 91: 653:650
Raper, N. R., Cronin, F. J., & Exler, J. (1992). Omega-3 fatty acid content of the US food supply. Journal of the American College of Nutrition,11(3), 304-308. doi:10.1080/07315724.1992.10718231
Richard, A., Rohrmann, S., Zhang, L., Eichholzer, M., Basaria, S., Selvin, E., . . . Platz, E. A. (2014). Racial variation in sex steroid hormone concentration in black and white men: a meta-analysis. Andrology,2(3), 428-435. doi:10.1111/j.2047-2927.2014.00206.x
Rivas AM, Mulkey Z, Lado-Abeal J, Yarbrough S. Diagnosing and managing low serum testosterone. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2014;27:321-324
Rohrmann, S., Nelson, W. G., Rifai, N., Brown, T. R., Dobs, A., Kanarek, N., . . . Platz, E. A. (2007). Serum Estrogen, But Not Testosterone, Levels Differ between Black and White Men in a Nationally Representative Sample of Americans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,92(7), 2519-2525. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-0028
Ross R, Bernstein L, Judd H, Hanisch R, Pike M, Henderson B. Serum testosterone levels in healthy young black and white men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Jan;76(1):45–48
Rushton, J. P. (1986). Gene-Culture Coevolution and Genetic Similarity Theory: Implications for Ideology, Ethnic Nepotism, and Geopolitics. Politics and the Life Sciences,4(02), 144-148. doi:10.1017/s0730938400004706
Rushton J P (1997). Race, Evolution, and Behavior. A Life History Perspective (Transaction, New Brunswick, London).
Safarinejad, M. R., Hosseini, S. Y., Dadkhah, F., & Asgari, M. A. (2010). Relationship of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with semen characteristics, and anti-oxidant status of seminal plasma: A comparison between fertile and infertile men. Clinical Nutrition,29(1), 100-105. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2009.07.008
Sharpe, R. M. (2012). Sperm counts and fertility in men: a rocky road ahead. EMBO reports,13(5), 398-403. doi:10.1038/embor.2012.50
Stattin, P., Lumme, S., Tenkanen, L., Alfthan, H., Jellum, E., Hallmans, G., . . . Hakama, M. (2003). High levels of circulating testosterone are not associated with increased prostate cancer risk: A pooled prospective study. International Journal of Cancer,108(3), 418-424. doi:10.1002/ijc.11572
Travison, T. G., Araujo, A. B., O’Donnell, A. B., Kupelian, V., & Mckinlay, J. B. (2007). A Population-Level Decline in Serum Testosterone Levels in American Men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,92(1), 196-202. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-1375
Tsujimura, A., Miyagawa, Y., Takezawa, K., Okuda, H., Fukuhara, S., Kiuchi, H., . . . Nonomura, N. (2013). Is Low Testosterone Concentration a Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome in Healthy Middle-aged Men? Urology,82(4), 814-819. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2013.06.023
Yeap, B. B., Hyde, Z., Almeida, O. P., Norman, P. E., Chubb, S. A., Jamrozik, K., . . . Hankey, G. J. (2009). Lower Testosterone Levels Predict Incident Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Older Men. Endocrine Reviews,30(4), 411-411. doi:10.1210/edrv.30.4.9994
Yuki, A., Otsuka, R., Kozakai, R., Kitamura, I., Okura, T., Ando, F., & Shimokata, H. (2013). Relationship between Low Free Testosterone Levels and Loss of Muscle Mass. Scientific Reports,3. doi:10.1038/srep01818
Over a ten year period in France, from 1999 to 2008-9, IQ has declined in France by almost 4 points. What is the cause? Immigration? Dysgenics? A reversal of the Flynn Effect? No doubt that numerous people would attribute the decline in intelligence in France due to MENA and SSA immigration. But is this true?
Lynn and Dutton (2015) show how differing studies show both positive and negative gains in IQ. To prevent further evidence of these negative Flynn gains, they looked to the IQ of France from 1999-2009.
The WAIS-III was standardized in France in 1999 while the WAIS-IV was standardized in 2009. This was a great opportunity to see if the intelligence of the French dropped using the new WAIS-IV. The sample was of 79 people who were of a different sample than that of the broader WAIS-IV French standardization. The average age of the sample was 45, ranging between 30 and 63 years of age. Half of this sample took the WAIS-IV first while the other half took the WAIS-III first to control for practice effects. They used a separate sample to compare the norms of generated by the two standardizes samples.
The above table from the paper, table 3, shows the comparison between the two WAIS tests. Positive ds indicate lower scaled scores on the III in comparison to the IV and thusly higher scores. What these data show is that the IV is harder than the III and IQ declined because the test got ‘tougher’ (because full-scale intelligence declined). As noted above, this phenomenon of decreasing IQ scores has been noticed for about 20 years now. The symbol search showed the smallest decline while there was no change in digit span. The biggest gain was in vocabulary.
This is pretty shocking. In ten years, verbal comp decreased by 4 points, perceptual reasoning index by 3.1 points, no change in working memory index, processing speed index decreased by .7 points, perceptual organization index decreased by 3.9 and the whole full-scale IQ decreased by 3.8 points. Lynn and Dutton discuss the results:
In addition, the Full Scale IQ on the WAIS IV sample of 79 subjects was calculated based on a comparison with the WAIS IV sample of 876 subjects, which was representative of the French population on key variables such as education and region. The scores of this sample of 876 subjects were set at 100 and a comparison made with the sample of 79 subjects. As can be seen in Table 4, on this basis the IQ of the sample of 79 subjects was 101.1 with an SD of 14.7, where the French norm would be 100 and the SD 15. As such, the smaller sample can be regarded as representative of the French population in terms of intelligence.
So this small sample can be regarded as representative of the French population. Lynn and Dutton say that the digit span showing no increase corroborates findings from another researcher that showed that there was no change in forward or backward digit span in 85 years. They then say:
. . .improvements in the quality of nutrition during the twentieth century made a major contribution to increasing IQs. But it seems improbable that the quality of nutrition declined in recent years in France and in the other economically developed countries in which declining IQs have been reported.
So one possible cause is that nutrition has declined in France. From Dubuisson et al, 2010:
These repeated surveys highlighted the fact that trends in French food habits have moved towards an average European diet at the crossroads between Mediterranean and Northern diets, and that food consumption changes impacted, to a lesser extent, nutritional intake.
It shows that the French diet is in between Med and Nord diets. Really, as Lynn and Dutton asserted, there was no decline in nutritional quality for the French.
Another possible cause is a decrease in quality of schools. Flynn says a part of the reason for the rise in IQ was due to the advent of scientific thinking. However, this is not a good explanation either since school quality seems to not have been affected.
Flynn also talks about the media and its role. Lynn and Dutton say:
However, this would not explain declines in other forms of intelligence and, moreover, it might be argued that the desire and ability to read such literature would be underpinned by general intelligence and so a decline in the consumption of such literature would partly reflect a decline in general intelligence, as vocabulary is a measure of intelligence.
It is also worth noting that, apparently, reading may actually increase general intelligence (post coming on that soon).
Now, finally, the theory we’ve all been waiting for: Is it increased immigration?
Lynn and Dutton state:
This increase has occurred throughout western Europe and a number of studies have shown that immigrants from North Africa and south-west Asia typically have an average IQ of around 85 to 90 (Lynn, 2006, Lynn, 2008, Lynn and Vanhanen, 2012 and Rindermann and Thompson, 2014; for a large meta-analysis see te Nijenhuis, de Jong, Evers, & van der Flier, 2004). This conclusion has been confirmed by Kirkegaard (2013) who has shown that in Denmark the number of non-European immigrants increased from approximately 50,000 in 1980 to 400,000 in 2012 and the IQ of non-European immigrants in 18–19 year old military conscripts was 86.3, relative to 100 for indigenous Danes. These immigrants are likely to have had some impact on reducing the average IQ of the populations, but it is doubtful whether the increase in the number of immigrants with lower IQs has been sufficiently great to have had a major effect.
I personally don’t think that migration into Europe from MENA and SSA countries has been enough to put that big of a dent (over 1/3rd of an SD) in average IQ in France, and Europe as a whole. Since people are coming from areas closer to the equator and have higher rates of children since they are r-selected, could this be why France has seen a decrease in intelligence?
Woodley of Menie and Dunkel (2015) reviewed Lynn and Dutton’s paper and said:
Replacement migration in France involving populations exhibiting lower means of IQ and higher rates of total fertility, such as Algerians, Moroccans, Tunisians and Roma (Čvorić, 2014 and Lynn and Vanhanen, 2012) may be increasing the rate of secular losses at the level of g, consistent with speculations advanced in Dutton and Lynn (2015), however the additional loss in g due to this process is anticipated to be very small. Based on a simulation, Nyborg (2012) estimates that in Denmark, replacement migration may be reducing heritable g by .28 points per decade, which would increase the overall loss in g to 1.51 points per decade ( Woodley of Menie, 2015), this still being only 37.75% of the loss observed in the French cohort.
An Environmental Explanation?
Since we still need an explanation for 62.25 percent of the 3.8 decrease in full-scale IQ other than dysgenic fertility, are there any environmental explanations? Environmental explanations can be anything from child abuse, to poor schooling, to poor nutrition, etc. Was there an increase in any of these or other variables that negatively affect IQ which would explain the 3.8 point decline in IQ?
One of the most likely candidates is nutrition. Lack of certain vitamins, especially in childhood, would prevent the brain from receiving the proper nourishment to grow.
The INCA study took record of food consumption from 2,373 people aged 4 to 92 from a 7-week period and from that they saw which nutrients they were deficient in (Touvier et al 2006). To measure if and how much they were nutrient deficient, they used the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). The vitamins used were calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins C, A, B6, and B12, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and folate. A lot of these have to do with proper brain functioning and ability to reach its full-size potential. For instance like the B vitamins and iron. Being deficient in those nutrients depresses brain size and with it IQ. For instance, being deficient in vitamin B 12 and folate leads to decreased brain size in childhood. The negative effects of being deficient in these nutrients may partially explain some of the 3.8 point decrease in full-scale IQ.
Regarding the prevalence of the aforementioned nutrient deficiencies in these populations, the authors state:
We also calculated daily consumption of 44 food groups by age and gender. This paper shows how the combination of both data sets, i.e., inadequacy and food consumption data, allows a preliminary screening of potential food vehicles in order to optimize fortification. The prevalence of inadequacy was particularly high for the following groups: for calcium, females aged 10-19 years (73.5%) or aged 55-90 years (67.8%), and males aged 15-19 years (62.4%) or aged 65-92 years (65.4%); for magnesium, males aged 15-92 years (71.7%) and females aged 10-90 years (82.5%); for iron, females aged 15-54 years (71.1%); and for vitamin C, females aged 15-54 years (66.2%). Two examples are provided to illustrate the proposed method for the optimization of fortification.
Most vitamins and minerals have positive effects on brain functioning, some more than others, but notice the prevalence of iron defieciency in the females aged 15-54 years (71.1 percent). With the cohort cited by Lynn and Dutton (2015) and Woodley of Menie and Dunkel (2015) being aged 30 to 63 with an average age of 45, the prevalence of iron deficiencies in the INCA study, along with the other deficiencies in the cohort, may partially be responsible for the decline in IQ.
The Flynn Effect
One of the biggest mysteries in psychology is the Flynn Effect; the fact that over the 20th century, people have been performing better and better on IQ tests. Of course, the average IQ in Western countries by definition is always about 100, however because people keep scoring higher every decade, the tests routinely have to be made more difficult and the norms must be regularly updated to keep the mean IQ from rising far above 100.
However, in first-world countries, in the past 20 or so years, it has been in decline, particularly in France. It’s due to a mix of dysgenic fertility and nutrient deficiencies. Since Flynn gains are largely due to advancements in better nutrition, Flynn loses would then be attributed in part to nutrient deficiencies as well as dysgenic fertility.
The cause for the 3.8 decrease in IQ in France is low fertility rates amongst the French population as well as nutrient deficiencies. Clearly, ameliorating this decrease in IQ can be reversed by the K-selected having more children and healthier eating habits. Drops in IQ won’t be attributed to MENA and SSA populations until the future, but for now, the cause for the decrease is the French themselves.
Racial differences in blood donations pose a big problem for minorities. This has to do with altruism, which as I have covered extensively here, has a genetic basis. This pathological altruism has whites give and donate more than other races. This is due to evolving in colder climates with harsher environments, which high intellect evolved so our ancestors could survive. Why do minorities, blacks specifically, donate blood less?
Shaz and Hillyer (2010) observed that minorities were underrepresented as donors in the U.S., and that the cause was a higher deferral rate. Deferral reasons include: “low hemoglobin, travel, abnormal blood pressure, pulse or temperature, inability to find vein, tattoo/piercing, infection or taking antibiotics, and not being in good health.” They state that blood donation rate for blacks was 25 to 50 percent of that of white individuals.
Blacks have lower levels of hemoglobin than whites. The Red Cross defers people with low levels of hemoglobin. I don’t really know about blacks traveling too much. Abnormal blood pressure could be low or high blood pressure. Your blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance in your arteries.The more blood your heart pumps while arteries are clogged, the higher your blood pressure will be. The more fat and cholesterol that build up on the inner walls of the arteries, which I covered the other day, is called atherosclerosis. Called “hypertension” by the medical community, blacks also have a higher rate of this disease as well. Blacks have more genes expressed for coronary artery calcium, which is a strong indicator of atherosclerosis burden. Cardiovascular disease, more specifically coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death for all Americans of all ages and ethnic groups (smoking is a leading cause of this). Blacks suffer the highest percentage of deaths due to CHD. And finally, inability to find a vein is due in large part to 75.6 percent of the black community being obese in America (69.2 percent for men and 82 percent for women).
Another reason for deferral is that all though Sickle Cell Disease isn’t strictly a racial disease, blacks do have the highest rate of it. Those with Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) can donate blood, though those with Sickle Cell Disease cannot.
Infections and antibiotics as well as not being in good health is yet another reason why blacks get deferred. This is due in part to “down-low bruthas” who are more likely to have diseases, and therefore cannot donate blood or plasma. Since homosexuals have some of the highest rates of disease in the country, it’s no surprise that blacks would be leading the pack in that subgroup of the country as well. This is a huge reason why blacks get deferred so much. However, in December of last year, the FDA lifted its lifetime ban of gays donating blood. I shutter to think what the deferral rates of blacks will look like in a few years due to this. That is also why “not being in good health” along with “infection or antibiotics” are such big reasons for deferrals. Blacks have all of the things they defer for, yet of course, allegations of prejudice and racism come about and the government has to step in to change things again, endangering the citizens of the country.
To quote from this AmRen article:
It has long been known that blood transfusions and organ transplants work best between people of the same race. Until the Second World War, stocks of blood were routinely segregated by race for this reason. Classification by race was ended when it was discovered to be “racist,” but blood banks are reinstituting segregation.
The distribution of the common blood types is different from race to race, and some rare types are unique to certain races. Only blacks have U negative blood; only whites have Vel negative or Lan negative blood. Dr. W. Laurence Marsh of the New York Blood Center justifies racial classification: “It makes no sense to screen 100,000 whites for U negative when no U negative white person has ever been found.”
So there is a problem with interracial blood transfusion, and they work better with co-ethnics than non-co-ethnics.
Though compatibility is not based on race, genetically similar blood is best for patients who need repeated or large volumes of blood transfusions, or those who have produced red blood cell antibodies for various diseases and conditions like sickle cell, heart disease and kidney disease.
It says that “compatibility isn’t based on race” then says immediately after “genetically similar blood is best for patients who need repeated or large volumes of blood transfusions. . .” The fact that there are differences in blood-type rate by ethnicity, and that there is a shortage of those blood types for blacks and “Hispanics” in America.
There are varying frequencies in white blood types are found in ethnicities throughout the country, and these varying frequencies in blood type are another reason why interethnic blood transfusion cannot happen; because the differing ethnic groups vary in the different blood types, there will be a low chance of having a certain blood type if it’s rare.
Another reason why blacks donate blood less is due to fear of needles and low iron. Low iron is due to vitamin and mineral deficinecies in diet. Combined with all of the aformentioned variables, this is why blacks get deferred so much. They just don’t donate as much either.
The disparity in differences in blood donation also come down to differences in giving between the races. Whites were seen to be more altruistic than were minorities in the study. This same altruistic behavior leads to more blood donations, but it also leads to the cucking of Europe due to the increase in pathological altruism.
Racial differences in blood donation are due to a whole host of factors, mainly being SCD and other diseases as a barrier for donation, as well as differing blood type frequencies between ethnic/racial groups. Since blacks have higher frequencies of SCD, SCT, and SCA this is another cause for their deferral rate. Being highly sexually active leads to higher disease acquisition, which is another reason less blacks donate blood. Moreover, blacks’ want to donate will not increase either; racial differences in blood donation and problems will persist to the forseeable future.
Haaretz reported today that Germany was going to begin IQ testing on the ‘migrants’ to assess where talent and what occupational groups that they could put them in. This is a slightly positive change with all of the negativity this past year.
The mean IQ of Arab countries is 84 (Templer, 2010). With around 1.2 million ‘refugees’ coming from land and sea, assuming a SD of 15 (seeing as Arabs are Caucasian, I’ll assume a SD of 15), 50 percent of them fall at or below 84. So 600k at 84 or below. 16 percent fall at 100. 192k fall at 100. 12k at 120 and 1,680 fall at 130. 50 percent fall below 84. In America the average IQ for a repeat criminal is 85. With an IQ of 85, you can see that criminality begins to increase. This is due to lack of abstract thought(linked to verbal ability), which has them not think of the consequences of their actions before they act. At or below 85 is 1 in 6, 68% of the population is within 1 SD of 100, and 2.5% of people are 130 or more.
I can’t find any data on Arab testosterone at the moment, so I’ll just assume that it’s higher than Europeans due to the Arabs’ closer proximity to the equator (someone correct me if I’m wrong), as that’s why African’s testosterone is high. Due to higher average testosterone combined with low IQ, this leads to increased aggression along with increased sex crime, which is a cause for some of the sex assaults on European women by Muslim men. I can’t find anything on terrorist IQ, the closest I can find is how the FBI convinced a man with an IQ of 51 to attempt terrorist acts, though that’s an extreme case. Since low IQ is correlated highly with lack of abstract thought, it was easier for him to become convinced to do it. Like in most organizations, the more intelligent ones are at the top so they tell the lower IQ ones what to do. Though, by administering these tests, they will greatly lower their chances for another terrorist attack, seeing as those actions are correlated with low IQ.
In a study on prison inmates, IQ predicted inmate misconduct. Using a sample of 2500 inmates over 30 institutions from August 2004 to June 2006, it was found that those inmates who had higher IQs were involved in fewer incidents as well as being less likely to commit violent behavior. Verbal intelligence has been posited to be some of the cause for increased crime, seeing as verbal IQ is correlated with delinquent behavior, which is due to lack of abstract thought being correlated with lower IQ. With higher testosterone being correlated with low IQ and increased androgen sensitivity along with higher sperm counts (both are indicators of higher testosterone) being correlated negatively when measured by speed of neuronal transmission which causes a trade-off between g (general intelligence) and neuronal transmission, this shows that increased testosterone means decreased IQ. This is also seen with how higher IQ people have a lower sex drive.
I did say in my article Non-Western People are Abnormal for Our Society, that, as the title says, non-Western people are abnormal for our society due to not sharing our cultural values, which, we know is genetic. Though, higher IQ individuals will be better able to acclimate into society, as well as have a decreased proclivity to commit crime.
Since there are some evoultionary reasons for suicide bombings due to increased inbreeding this increased genetic similarity between them which led to increased altruism due to genetic similarity, by allowing those with higher IQs, this will lead to a greatly increased chance for attacks to happen as higher IQ people are better at controlling impulses.
This is a move I agree with. All countries should implement this procedure (obviously not enough to where it begins to displace the native population). With there being a cut-off limit on IQ, lets say 105 or even 110, that guarantees a high chance of those who are immigrating will be of value to the country and bring something to the table instead of the current situation with the benefits they currently receive (and lets be honest, you know these rules aren’t being followed). So by implementing this policy not only in Germany, but around the world, this would be a great thing for the West, to restrict immigration only to high-skilled workers, with a background check, intelligence test and someone with good credentials. Of course, only in sectors that really need the help. I of course advocate for the natives of any country to have first dibs when it comes to getting a job.
All in all, this is good move because a) rapes will be lessened and b) there won’t be as much individuals on welfare because there will be an (assumed) moratorium on those with lower IQs, leaving the higher IQ ones to find jobs and contribute to the economy.
Genetic Similarity Theory evolved so we could better spread on shared genes in our immediate population, as well as those closest to ourselves. Meaning those of our race/ethnicity. People say “how could altruism evolve if it’s self-sacrifice, selfishness would win out”. Well, what’s being preserved is not the individual, obviously, but shared genes. To those who say (JayMan) that ethnic genetic interests don’t exist, there is a mountain of evidence that says otherwise.
Rushton and Nicholson (1988), tested predictions from genetic similarity theory and found that spouses select each other on the basis of more genetically influenced cognitive tests. It’s known since The Bell Curve came out in 1994 that spouses select each other based on IQ. What Rushton and Nicholson noted in the study was that estimates of genetic influence calculated on Koreans and Canadians predicted assortative mating in European Americans in Hawaii and California. Americans of mixed ancestry made up for ethnic dissimilarity by matching up on the more heritable traits, whereas the correlation is lower for those traits that are more influenced by the environment. The observations on genetic selection were weaker but still had a positive correlation, when the g factor was taken out of the equation. This suggests that we choose mates based on the general intelligence factor.
In studies on bereavement, it’s noted that those parents who believe their children resembled their side of the family grieved more than if they believed their child resembled the opposite side of their family (Littlefield and Rushton, 1986). This has huge implications for Genetic Similarity Theory.
Henry Harpending showed that against the background of worldwide genetic variance, the average similarity between people in a single population is on the order of magnitude of half siblings. To quote Rushton:
Political scientist Frank Salter calculated that compared to the Danes, any two random English people have a kinship of 1/32 of a cousin. Two English people become the equivalent of 3/8 of a cousin by comparison with people from the Near East, 1/2 cousin by comparison with people from India, half-siblings by comparison with people from China, and like full-siblings compared with people from sub-Saharan Africa.
Thus, the aggregate of genes people share with co-ethnics dwarfs those shared with extended families. Rather than being a poor relation of family nepotism, ethnic nepotism is virtually a proxy for it.
His conclusion being:
Conclusion: the reason people engage in ethnic nepotism, as well as marry similar others, and like, make friends with, and help the most similar of their neighbors, is that doing so benefits copies of their genes.
The sense of a common ethnicity remains a major focus of identification for individuals today. It is no more likely to diminish in the future than is that of the family.
Genetic similarity theory explains why.
In Rushton’s paper GENE-CULTURE COEVOLUTION AND GENETIC SIMILARITY THEORY: IMPLICATIONS FOR IDEOLOGY, ETHNIC NEPOTISM, AND GEOPOLITICS, two individuals will be, on average, more genetically similar to those of their own ethnicity than to those two from different ethnic groups. Therefore, it will be in the individual’s own self-interest to help one genetically similar to himself, and therefore, derogate the out-group, causing ethnic strife when two genetically dissimilar groups meet up and live together.
Jews that have been separated for thousands of years still show more genetic similarity to each other than to other populations. This shows in how ethnically nepotistic Ashkenazi Jews are to themselves. Jews from Iraq have more in common from a genetic viewpoint than do those 2 groups in comparison to other populations in the world. We can, therefore, expect Jews, as well as all populations in the world, to adopt ideologies that will proliferate their own genes, but come at the expense of derogating out-groups.
Genetic Similarity Theory may also explain how well and with how much tenacity the German military fought in WWII, as well as the lack of morale in the American Army during Vietnam.
He says that if genetic distance measures were calculated, that American liberals will be more genetically distant from the WASP average. The growth of white survivalism is also explained by genetic similarity theory. To quote Rushton:
The growth of “white survivalism” and militant “Christian Identity” groups such as the Aryan Nations, and the Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord, represent a more extreme response to these perceived threats to the AngloSaxon gene pool. If this overall analysis is correct, one might expect similar correlations in deviations from both genetic and ideological norms in other groups. Preserving the “purity” of the ideology might be an attempt at preserving the “purity” of the gene pool. Are ideological “conservatives” typically more genetically homogeneous than the same ideology’s “liberals”?
This can be seen today, no matter where you look in the world. From the Rwandan genocide involving the Tutsis and the Hutus to La Raza in the American Southwest to Black Lives Matter to the KKK and other white interest groups, to even how East Asians and other Asian immigrants basically isolate themselves in areas with those who are culturally, as well as genetically like themselves. Genetic similarity manifests itself in our societies and makes itself evident every day.
We can also view conflicts from other parts of the world to see genetic causes for them as well. We can look at the Northern Ireland conflicts between the Irish Protestants and Catholics to see if it represents a thousand-year-old continuation of the war between the AngloSaxons and the Celts, to the conflict of the Babylonians and the Egyptians which could be manifesting itself today between the Jews and the Arabs, ethnic dissimilarity shows itself in world geopolitics, as well as showing that ethnic dissimilarity is a driving focus in most of our wars and problems.
Rushton then finally asks the question:
If the replication of genetically similar genes is as strong a biological imperative as sociobiological theorizing suggests, why are descendants of North European populations everywhere in the world currently experiencing negative growth, while concurrently allowing extensive immigration from genetically less similar gene pools? Why, at the same time have North European populations adopted an ideology of secular humanism which discourages racist attitudes and encourages antipathies toward religious sentiment proportional to the degree to which those ideologies combat the new orthodoxy?
Cultural and organic evolution are different, yet linked in many ways and may ultimately share certain properties. Both strive to replicate at the expense of other groups, so we can see how ideologies could evolve that dramatically decrease fitness for one group over another. This also goes back centuries. This is seen in classes, and sometimes race. Those at the top, i.e., the more intelligent, have fewer children than the people that they rule over. Then, it’s not too long until the ruled become the rulers and the cycle repeats itself. Rushton says:
There is indeed evidence that this trade off exists at a quite profound level and moreover is related to other characteristics, the whole complex being partly genetic in origin (Rushton, 1985). My own guess is that low fertility may be partly mediated by a psychological process in which the desire to be in control of both oneself and one’s environment is taken to an extreme.
This is one of the many reasons that Europeans today have such a low birth rate. I have written before on how to ameliorate this effect, i.e., positive things shown to women in the media such as being happy with babies. That was shown to increase the birth rate in pre-WWII Germany as well as having a positive benefit on the psyche of the German women seeing other women happy with children. The effects of media socialization, though, go both ways, which is one reason for low European birthrates.
Successful cultures ultimately arise in those that the top of the society limits its reproduction, which, in turn, didn’t give others more genetically similar the chance to replace them. This may be a cause, as Rushton says, for the fall of the Graeco-Roman Empire, stating that the Roman Empire and other similar cultures were, presumably, evolutionary dead ends. He then asks: “If this perspective is accurate, are North Europeans headed for the same fate as the ruling classes of ancient Greece and Rome?”
Rushton ends the paper as follows:
The question is: if that time comes, in whose image will it be shaped? People will differ in their moral prescriptions. The choices they make are likely to reflect both their genetic and their ideological interests.
This is why I say, that, on an individual level, morals are subjective. Society as a whole sets morals, but this says to me that on an individual level that morals are subjective, but that’s for another time.
There are many reasons why altruism and ethnocentrism evolved, as well as many reasons why that same altruism is being used against Europeans, as well as some more environmental factors. This is also seen in Non-Western people who are abnormal to our societies due to differing evolution and culture, which culture is a product of genetics.
It’s clear that we are more altruistic to people who look more phenotypically similar to ourselves, to pass on and benefit copies of our genes. This evolved in spite of the negative impact on behalf of the altruist. The altruist is helping copies of his shared genes survive so that they may be copied into the next generation of progeny. The tendency to favor co-ethnics is the tendency to attempt to help pass on shared genes, as if the phenotype is similar, more often than not, the genotype is as well. This is the basis for ethnocentrism.
Abnormal psychology is a facet of psychology that studies abnormalities in people compared to the average of the population. Abnormal psychology, therefore, has “the 4 d’s”, which are:
Deviance, dysfunction, distress and danger.
All 4 of those things that are involved with abnormal psych have to do with the mass immigration into all Western societies around the world. Their behavior is abnormal in the sense that it’s not normal for our societies. In this post today, I will explain how and why mass immigration falls under the umbrella of “the 4 d’s” of abnormal psychology and its consequences for our societies as a whole.
Now I will define the term “Western culture”, which is defined as:
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The first “d” of abnormality is “deviance”. Deviance is defined as deviation from the norm. Different, extreme, unusual or bizarre.
A) Thoughts, behaviors and emotions are different from what is considered normal in a specific time or place by people. What I will describe below is how non-Western immigrants have thoughts, behaviors and emotions that are different from what is considered normal in our time, place and by our people.
B) the individual deviates from social norms which are stated and unstated rules for proper conduct in a given society or culture. Deviation from societal norms, i.e., sex with a minor is one major thing that these non-Western immigrants do. They deviate from our societal norms. Most non-Western immigrants do things such as this, along with more, but this is the easiest example to give for this.
C) judgments of abnormality vary from society to society as norms grow from a particular culture. So they depend on circumstance. This is true. Those actions that are considered deviant in our society are not deviant in other societies due to differing cultural norms (which culture is defined by IQ).
The average non-Western immigrant is deviant in comparison to our societal norms. Their morals and way of life differ from that of the average of our societies.
Some good examples are the mass immigration to Europe from Western Asia, as well as mass immigration to America from the South of the border. They bring their cultural values to our countries, then their deviant cultural values start to permeate our society as more and more of them come and they have more and more kids.
Both of those cultures do things that are huge taboos in our own Western societies: mainly courting and having sex with young children, as old as 12 years old.
Ages of consent differ in comparison to which society you look at. For instance in Egypt it’s 18, Northern Ireland is 17, Namibia is 16, Sweden is 15, Canada is 14, Korea is 13 (this is a contradictory law, with the AoC being 19) and Mexico is 12. These are all differing societies with differing racial populations with differing social norms for age of consent.
So those from the South of the border come here, and they bring their cultural values here with them. They then attempt to court and have sex with those same young girls where it would be legal where they come from, but it’s illegal in the US due to our societal norms. Therefore, it is deviant behavior as it goes away from the norm.
The average global age of consent is 16. Though, in those Muslim-Western Asian countries, the AoC is either 16 to 18 or you have to be married. This means they are not following the laws of their home countries when they attempt to court younger women.
This also has to do with their social structure and religion which marries child brides. They bring their culture and ways of life to Europe/America (the same as those from South of the American border), which in turn with more of them coming in, as well as their current birth rates (current birth rates never remain stable, so, to guesstimate what birth rates and trends will look like in 20 to 30 years isn’t good) if they become the majority in our countries, they will, in turn, make their current deviant behavior non-deviant because they then made themselves the majority and, in turn, making their actions the norm and not deviant. This, along with so many more reasons is why we cannot have mass non-Western immigration in to our countries. Their cultural values don’t line up with ours.
Seeing as IQ defines culture, culture doesn’t define IQ, we can see that, on average, those countries with cultures closer to ours have higher average IQs, whereas those countries with cultures further away from our own have lower IQs.
The second “d of abnormality” is dysfunction. Dysfunction is defined as the interference in a person’s ability to conduct daily activities. Their behavior interferes with their ability to conduct day to day activities, because their biology, from which their social structure derives from, doesn’t allow them to function without the dysfunction to be good citizens of our societies. For the behavior to be abnormal, it must be deviant, as well as cause dysfunction.
A) abnormal behavior leads to interference in daily functions. Culture and play a big role. Some examples of dysfunction are as follows:
Social isolation, fear, less sleep, increased appetite, not eating, depression, down mood, self-conscious, hygiene, thinking too much, joy, paranoia, hyperactivity, decrease in motor functions. Those non-Western immigrants are dysfunctional in our societies, due to how they evolved in their own area, which in turn led to their cultural values we see today. A lot of those definitions for “dysfunction” fit most immigrants in to our countries.
The third “d of abnormality” is distress. Distress is defined as being unpleasant or upsetting to the person.
A) according to clinical theorists, behaviors, thoughts, and ideas have to cause distress before they’re considered abnormal. Other theorists may not believe this. I agree with the clinical theorists. Behaviors are abnormal when behaviors, thoughts and ideas cause distress, which of course this distress is deviation from the norm due to their actions.
The non-Western immigrants cause distress by rape, assault, sexual assault, murder, etc. They (Arabs/Muslims) do so because they are so inbred, which in turn leads to them being more genetically similar to their own, which is the cause of strife and distress when they meet up with other ethnic groups when they migrate to other countries that don’t share their cultural norms.
So, behaviors are deviant when they cause distress and move away from societal norms, which then cause dysfunction.
The fourth and final “d of abnormality” is danger. Danger is defined as a person posing risk or harm to others or themselves.
A) abnormal behaviors become dangerous to one’s self or others – behaviors may become careless, hostile or even confused
B) dangerousness tends to be exception rather than rule
The average behavior of those non-Western immigrants is dangerous to us in the West. Their behavior is deviant, which leads to dysfunction, which in turn leads to distress of the people in the area and finally it is dangerous to the population.
They are dangerous to us because they don’t know how to live in our Western societies, they don’t know how to handle themselves around beautiful Western women (because their women are covered up from head to toe all day), so therefore when the average Western Asian sees the average Western woman, they cannot control their urges due to 1) low IQ and 2) higher testosterone. Those with lower IQs cannot control their urges like those with higher IQs. As seen here, those with higher IQs lost their virginity later than those with lower IQs, showing that the higher your IQ, the more you can hold back your urges to have sex.
That’s not to say that all non-Western immigrants act like this. As always, I’m talking about averages. There are those on the right side of The Bell Curve, who are not a representative of their population, so they can assimilate into our culture. But for the vast majority of those people, they cannot assimilate due to lower average IQ as well as their average behavioral patterns for their ethnic group, which causes the “4 d’s of abnormality” as I have listed above.
The same can be said for Negros in America as well. They are deviant, dysfunctional, they cause distress in our country and finally, they pose a danger to us, our families and societies as a whole. Just like those immigrants we have come into our countries who cannot assimilate because it’s not in their biology.
The “4 d’s of abnormality” and how they relate to our culture and the current culture/biology of those non-Western immigrants coming into our country is extremely telling. It’s clear that those people cannot assimilate into our societies because of differing biology and differing locations in which they evolved in. We chose our environments based on our biology. Environment increasingly depends on their genes, rather than being the cause of their exogenous behavior. That says it all. We chose the environments we put ourselves in based on our biology. I will now end with this Douglas Whitman quote, which I have heard called “Whitman’s Law” (great name):
Race is not a social construct. Society is a racial construct. Society and culture derive from race/biology
We all wonder, why are most European men allowing what’s happening at the moment in Europe. Why, for instance, did hundreds of men not intervene during the sexual assaults in Cologne on New Years? There are both genetic and social reasons for these phenomena that are currently happening in the European Homeland. Causes include genetic pacification, the Bystander Effect, BPA in plastics and of course, the media and propaganda towards people.
From this paper by Frost and Harpending (2015), we see that between the 5th and 11th centuries, genetic pacification was impeded by the nature of law enforcement, the beliefs in a man’s right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church’s opposition to the death penalty.
The impediments on genetic pacification began to dissolve by the 11th century when the Church and State decided that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. By the late Middle Ages, Courts were imposing the death penalty on .5 to 1 percent of men each generation, with just as many dying at the scene of the crime or in prison awaiting trial.
The murder rate plummeted between the 14th and 20th centuries. Most murders during that time were committed due to jealousy, intoxication or stress. The decline is attributed to longer punishments and the effects of cultural conditioning, but may also be caused by the new cultural environment selecting against propensities for violence.
I theorize that due to the culling of .5 to 1 percent of the violent European men up to the late Middle Ages is the cause of the people with ‘no fight in them’, so to speak. By culling the part of the population that has propensities for violence, you’re only left with those with low testosterone, therefore, less propensity to act when situations arise (such as Cologne). Due to the culling of part of the violent population, this caused the murder rate to drop from the 14th to 20th centuries, as well as leaving most that were left, unable to act under certain circumstances.
Clearly, without the culling of those individuals with a propensity for violence, we are left with what we have in Europe today: men with no heart, no fight in them to protect their women against invading peoples. But there are more reasons for this other than genetic pacification.
BPA in Plastics
Being hugely interested in nutrition, I also know of this nice little tidbit about plastics. The chemical BPA was discovered to act as an artificial estrogen in the 1930s. Since BPA has been in our plastics for over 100 years, this, along with genetic pacification, also explains another part of this puzzle on why Europe is so cucked.
The consumption of fluids in plastics with the chemical BPA shows a decrease in testosterone for men. In a study from China, men who worked in a chemical plant showed lower levels of testosterone than men who worked in a tap water plant. What was noted, was that those men who worked in a chemical plant had lower levels of free testosterone, which this form of test is thought to have the greatest effect on the body (most test is not free, but bound to a protein in the body).
Testosterone does begin to decline at around age 30 at around 1 percent per year (I have read other sources that say that it begins to decline at around age 25 at a rate of 2 percent per year), but this does not explain the cause of low testosterone in males. The effects of BPA do, though. It’s been noted that the past 20 years have seen a decrease in male testosterone.
I advise all of you (women included, there are many deleterious effects of BPA on the mother as well as the baby prenatally), to discontinue use of plastics with BPA in them.
The Bystander Effect
I have seen many people wonder “why did so many men in Cologne just stand around and watch women get sexually assaulted and not intervene?”
The cause is simply answered with some basic psychology.
Rushton (1978), noted that those in rural areas gave help more often than those in more urban areas. He noted that as helping behavior decreased, the urban population increased. He goes in depth in his book Altruism, Socialization and Society on this subject, with numerous examples.
One example I remember from the book is that they had subjects in a room. The room then started filling with smoke. Those who were in there alone almost immediately phoned 911. Those who were in the room with more than themselves waited until the whole room was filled with smoke to act. When an event happens and there are more than a few individuals present, they start thinking “oh he will do something, I’ll just watch”. This effect is then seen in others who think the same things. There is an inverse relationship between the number of people in any given situation and the help they will give. The fewer people there are, the more likely one is to help. The more people there are, the less likely one is to help due to them thinking the next person will.
The bystander effect was first discovered in 1964 by social psychologists Bibb Latané and John Darley. A woman named Kitty Genovese was murdered outside of her apartment. Bystanders who witnessed the event did not do anything to help her. Latané and Darley attributed the effect to diffusion of responsibility and social influences. In the case of Genovese’s murder, each bystander concluded by the inaction of others witnessing the event that their own help was not needed.
There were thousands upon thousands of people who witnessed the events of Cologne. Along with genetic pacification, along with BPA in plastics combined with the bystander effect, all of these variables made it so that there would be no action, due largely in part to this bystander effect.
Socialization from Media
Finally, we have the media’s involvement with the cucking of Europe.
The media can be a very powerful tool to influence behavior in the populace. To quote Rushton from the paper Effects of Prosocial Television and Film Material on The Behavior of Viewers
The chapter includes that television’s strongest effects result from altering (a) a person’s internalized norms of appropriate behavior or (b) a person’s direct emotional response to stimuli. These two concepts are elaborated and each of the four prosocial categories (altruism, friendliness, self-control, and diminishing fears) is presented in the chapter. In this chapter, it is indicated that television has the power to affect the social behavior of viewers in a positive, prosocial direction.
If television has that much effect on people’s behavior and emotional response in prosocial behaviors, of course, the reverse will have the opposite effect. Constantly telling European men that “all whites are evil, and some only ‘less bad than others'”, has yet another effect on the psyche of the European male. Being told you’re constantly worthless and the cause of all of the problems in the world will lead to men beginning to think that, which is in and of itself a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Through the use of predictive programming, they can alter one’s perception of the world by putting in what seems to be innocent things, but subconsciously affect the mind in a negative way. Those exposed constantly to the effects of predictive programming by the media will then begin to believe what they say due to being bombarded with its messages of worthlessness every day.
First, the mass media can attract and direct attention to problems, or in ways which can favor those people in power, and correlatively, divert attention from rival individuals or groups. Second, the mass media can confer status and confirm legitimacy. Third, in some circumstances, the media can be a channel for persuasion and mobilization. Fourth, the mass media can help to bring certain kinds of publics into being and maintain them. Fifth, the media is a vehicle for psychic rewards and gratifications. They can divert and amuse and they can flatter. In general, mass media are very cost effective as a means of communication in society; they are also fast, flexible and easy to control.
The causes of the problems happening right now in Europe are due to both social and genetic factors. The reason for the cucking of Europe is due to the culling of the most aggressive men in the late Middle Ages, BPA in plastic, along with the bystander effect and finally, the anti-white media who tells European men they are useless.
I wonder, what if anything can be done to solve this problem and get Europe their fire back to protect the homeland from invasion. To stop drinking from plastics with BPA in them is a good start. To stop watching anti-white media that tells you’re worthless is a great start. To actually act when you see an event go down and not assume that the next man will intervene is a good start.
I wonder what it will take for Europe to finally get its fire back?