(Note, 6/24/17: Rushton’s r/K selection in applications to human races is dead. It’s been dead for almost 30 years after and ecologist critiqued his method and use of ecological theory in application to human races. Now, that doesn’t meant that everything written below—or even on my whole blog—is fully wrong, just that the attempted explanation is wrong. It still holds that Eurasians have worse fitness than Africans, which is partly due to deleterious Neanderthal variants, however, r/K theory does not explain it.)
Science Daily reported last week that Neanderthals left humans a genetic burden, which is having less offspring. Of course, these deleterious alleles only introgressed into non-African populations due to Africans not leaving Africa. This manifests itself today in birth rates within countries and between them based on the ethnic/racial mix. And (not) coincidentally, the areas with the highest rate of children are in sub-Saharan Africa.
The Neanderthals existed in small bands, so inbreeding was common. Due to this inbreeding, Neanderthals were more homogenous than we are today. When humans migrated out of Africa, they encountered the inbred Neanderthals who they interbred with. Harmful genetic variants acquired from Neanderthals are shown to reduce the fitness of populations with certain deleterious alleles. There are of course tradeoffs with everything in life. Increased intelligence and being better able to weather the Ice Age, among numerous other factors, were positive things gained from interbreeding with Neanderthals. Negative effects were the acquisition of deleterious alleles which still persist today in non-African hominids. These deleterious alleles decreased biological fitness which manifests itself in the birthrate of Eurasian populations throughout the world (the Germann and Japanese birthrate is 1.3 for reference).
Harris and Nielson also hypothesize that since Neanderthals existed in small bands that natural selection was less effective, allowing for weakly harmful mutations to pass on and not get weeded out over the generations. However, when introduced back into humans these effects become lost over time due to a large population with natural selection selecting against the deleterious Neanderthal alleles. Using a computer program, Harris and Nielson quantify how much of a negative effect the Neanderthal genome had on modern populations. The conclusion of the results was that Neanderthals are 40 percent LESS genetically fit than modern humans.
The researchers’ simulations also suggest that humans and Neanderthals mated more freely, which leads more credence to the idea that Neanderthals got absorbed into the Homo Sapien population and not mostly killed off. The estimation for Neanderthal DNA in modern hominids from the simulation was around 10 percent, which then continued to drop as the Neanderthal-Homo Sapiens hybrids interbred with those who hardly had any Neanderthal DNA. More evidence also shows that the percentage of Neanderthal DNA was higher in the past in Eurasians as well. Which makes sense since Asians have on average 20 percent more Neanderthal DNA than Europeans due to a second interbreeding event.
However, Harris and Nielson end up concluding that non-Africans historically had a 1 percent loss in biological fitness due to Neanderthal genetics. Moreover, a better immune system came from Neanderthal genetics. Skin color is another trait inherited from Neanderthals as well.
Along with the acquisition of deleterious Neanderthal alleles, early Eurasians also encountered the same environment as the Neanderthals. Those selection pressures, along with interbreeding due to small bands lead to a decrease in the number of children had. Fewer children are easier to care for as well as show more attention to. All of these variables in that environment lead to fewer children produced. It’s a better evolutionary strategy to have fewer children in more northerly climes than in more southerly ones due to the differing selection pressures. Environmental effects are also one reason why birthrates are lower for populations that evolved in northerly climes (Neanderthals and post-OoA hominids). Harsh winters lead to a decreased population size, as evidenced by the Inuit and Eskimoes, which their low population size didn’t allow for selection for high IQ despite having the same brain size as East Asians.
I couldn’t help but think that, yet again, for the second time in two weeks, one of JP Rushton’s theories was confirmed. This confirms one of the many variables of Rushton’s r/K Selection Theory. Just like I covered how Piantadosi and Kidd corroborated Rushton’s theory of brain size and earlier child birth. Neanderthals had bigger brains than we do today, and knowing what we know about the correlation between IQ, brain size and early childbirth, I would assume that Neanderthals also had earlier childbirths as well,.
Along with these deleterious gene variants from Neanderthals, other variables that contribute to the decline in Eurasian populations also include higher IQ as well, as JP Rushton says, is an extreme way to have control over their environment and individuality. These traits are seen in higher IQ populations in comparison to lower IQ populations. We could also make the inference that since Eurasian children have bigger heads, that multiple childbirths would be taxing on the Eurasian woman’s birth canal while it would be less taxing on the African woman’s.
This study also shows that Neanderthals also had less offspring due to being more intelligent. They had bigger brains than we do today, and since we know that higher IQ is correlated with fewer children conceived, we can say that they were pretty damn smart (they buried their dead 50,000 years ago. There was also a recent discovery of a 176,500-year-old Neanderthal constructions in a French cave). A main cause for the current trend in birthrates in Eurasian populations is due interbreeding with Neanderthals. These events also attributed more to the decline of the Neanderthals.
Deleterious Neanderthal alleles are yet another reason for lower Eurasian birthrates, which shows = that the current trend currently happening in the world with these populations is natural and evolutionarily based. I’ve said a few times that by showing positive things to women on television will increase the white birth rate, with Rushton cites National Socialist Germany as one example. By showing women happy with children, this lead to a massive boom in the German population. To ameliorate the effects of low natural birth rates, these positive things need to be shown on television to women to start to reverse the effects of low natural childbirths.
It’s been a great month for Rushton’s theories, with two of them being corroborated in one month. It’s only a matter of time before the denial of human nature is completely discarded from modern science. As the data piles up on human genetic diversity we will not be able to deny these clearly evident factors any longer.
much faster than asafa powell at the same age.
what if stephen francis got a hold of him?
Comparing novice stats and not accounting for differences in training at their early careers or comparing differences in gear, as you pointed out with Jesse Owens, is not convincing regarding the general trend.
ben johnson proved that over 100m the properly trained short legged long torsoed sprinter could still win.
and in the case of the 200 and 400 michael johnson proved that short legs may be better than long legs. more steps, but less energy expended.
“ben johnson proved that over 100m the properly trained short legged long torsoed sprinter could still win.”
How is ben johnson “short legged” with Michael for reference? Plus I haven;t read any thing that states, metrically, that Ben Johnson has such proportions but I have for Michael.
“and in the case of the 200 and 400 michael johnson proved that short legs may be better than long legs. more steps, but less energy expended.”
When lean, this is believable. Yet this necessitates the need of fiber types of IIa due to aerobic needs
Still consistent with what RR had explained so far.
short for a sprinter. another factoid: the nfl combine tests strength with the bench press. how many reps of 225 can the prospect do? the record is 51, and it’s held by a black guy.
both johnsons had unique running styles/gaits. both had far greater stride frequency than bolt. i agree with ben johnson that today he would be faster than bolt. both johnsons were also very coordinated/smooth. they ran like machines.
“Short for a sprinter”, Yet this is hardly noted by others from what I could find compared to Michael.
Again, unlike mIchael, nothing indicates that his sprinting style is as distinct as Michaels and it shows in their specialization, his being 100m compared to Michael’s 200m and 400m.
“how many reps of 225 can the prospect do? the record is 51, and it’s held by a black guy.”
If it involved repetitions, thus involving IIa muscle which can be converted from IIx, through training, this goes with my comments on Willaims and Henderson.
Being of a stockier body type, supporting more aerobic training along with having more IIx to work with, this makes sense.
Your comment on Johnsons, even if more thoroughly supported, as I commented earlier on 400 dashes and fiber types, would flip your early crutch on biomechanics and turn things back to the importances of fiber type.
Anything over 10 reps has to do with endurance, not strength. Those bench press stats are from endurance. It’d be a whole different ball game if it were strength.
I’m not aware of a formula to convert reps that high into 1RM. I may test something on myself to see if it’s possible then translate that over to the NFL combine results for instance.
right. but by your muscle fiber type theory the chance that a black guy is the record holder is nil.
225 was my single rep max…a long time ago.
ben johnson’s squat was the same as asafa powell’s, 600. and his max bench was ca 400. yet he weighed only 173 in that 1988 final, supposedly. so he was very strong, but not beyond what could have been accomplished sans steroids.
interesting factoid that his coach and bolt’s coach are unrelated but have the same surname…francis. charlie francis is dead. so imagine the fastest whites under 18 are all coached by stephen francis in jamaica…a chinaman has run 9.92 too. i expect we’ll all live to see a non-black 100m gold medalist in the olympics or the iaaf world championships.
“right. but by your muscle fiber type theory the chance that a black guy is the record holder is nil.”
Not really, RR’s theory mainly applied to representation, not the skillset of the few black there.
He often noted Mark Henry for his records.
Thus it makes sense for other blacks of the caliber to have the same traits as him.
“ben johnson’s squat was the same as asafa powell’s, 600. and his max bench was ca 400. yet he weighed only 173 in that 1988 final, supposedly. so he was very strong, but not beyond what could have been accomplished sans steroids.”
Interesting, but that doesn’t exactly translate with what you assert regarding his distinctive sprinting style you had asserted earlier.
“interesting factoid that his coach and bolt’s coach are unrelated but have the same surname…francis. charlie francis is dead. so imagine the fastest whites under 18 are all coached by stephen francis in jamaica…a chinaman has run 9.92 too.”
And historically was the only one.
Plus he had an illegal tail wind.
“On 27 May 2017, Su once again achieved a sub-10 second time in the 100m at the 2017 Prefontaine Classic with a personal best 9.92 seconds. However, the tailwind (+2.4 M/S) was above the allowed limit of 2.0 M/S, therefore the time does not count as a national record or personal best.”
I expect we’ll all live to see a non-black 100m gold medalist in the olympics or the iaaf world championships.”
Again, you are confused about RR theory regarding numeric representation versus ingroup variation.
THe possibility of exceptions due to unique skills of their own or uncommon traits in their group doesn’t, in turn, refute the advantages of other groups.
yes. even though blacks tend to have long legs and short torsos, i would say that ben johnson had a long torso, especially compared to other sprinters.
non-blacks have already won gold in the 200m and 400m in the last 20 years. it even happened in this last iaaf 200m in august. an azerbaijani and a cape colored won gold and silver respectively. and of course the only white in the race on the distaff side, dafne schippers, won gold in 2017 too. however this is consonant with the muscle fiber theory as past 50m is not a sprint.
but as i’ve said the black advantage up to 50m is nil.
thus the fiber type jive is un-subtle.
fast tasmanians + jamaican coach = faster than bolt. in like flynn, another tasmanian.
ben johnson said he could’ve run 9.3 with the new surfaces and spikes. i think he’s right.
“yes. even though blacks tend to have long legs and short torsos, i would say that ben johnson had a long torso, especially compared to other sprinters.”
Well not only is that photo not worth much seeing how one’s shirtless and the other is not, you are confusing the significance of relative and absolute metrics.
In other words, despite perhaps having a longer torso in a relative sense, it’s clearly not comparable to Michael in that regard in which it translates to distinct running styles noteworthy by others (which you have failed to reproduce) or specialization s different from most other sprinters.
“non-blacks have already won gold in the 200m and 400m in the last 20 years. it even happened in this last iaaf 200m in august. an azerbaijani and a cape colored won gold and silver respectively. and of course the only white in the race on the distaff side, dafne schippers, won gold in 2017 too. however this is consonant with the muscle fiber theory as past 50m is not a sprint.”
I agree, distance does effect variance in skill sets but that hardly weakens the role of fiber type.
“but as i’ve said the black advantage up to 50m is nil.” Not Nil, the strength changes by distance but that doesn’t equate to “no advantage.”
“thus the fiber type jive is un-subtle.”
No, because even then I still explained the role of fiber type still being important, it’s just that it changes from IIx to IIA, types that still can be changed inbetween each other.
“fast Tasmanians + Jamaican coach = faster than bolt. in like flynn, another tasmanian.”
I could not find a Tasmanian sprinter named Flynn, but I believe you mean Jack Hale,
So far he has only broken records in Australia, and so far has stuck to 100m ones at that. In Bolt’s junior career he was doing 200m, which he recorded under 21 multiple times..
“ben johnson said he could’ve run 9.3 with the new surfaces and spikes. i think he’s right.”
Not necessarily unusual.
“there are many ways to skin a cat, so to say.”
I agree a combination of different attributes can set records but this is talking about attributes that can affect representation.
“in the case of sprinting there are so many dimensions. the k2 maximum is the carl lewis or bolt type, long legs. but the global maximum, everest, is the ben johnson, michael johnson type. very rare. but best.”
And right there you basically explain the point of representation versus absolute quality as I’ve explained before.
Plus in the case of Michael and other long distabde sprinters how IIa and endurance coimes into play.
“for any who have lifted and sprinted, they know that both require more than muscle.
“in the case of weightlifting the heart adapts. it adapts in a manner unlike its adaptation to distance running. if you’ve done a maximum squat you know…the heart is involved. by “the heart” i don’t mean emotions. i mean the heart.”
This doesn’t explain much beyond “different factors” unless you continue this analogy into sprinting.
there are many ways to skin a cat, so to say.
in the case of sprinting there are so many dimensions. the k2 maximum is the carl lewis or bolt type, long legs. but the global maximum, everest, is the ben johnson, michael johnson type. very rare. but best.
for any who have lifted and sprinted, they know that both require more than muscle.
in the case of weightlifting the heart adapts. it adapts in a manner unlike its adaptation to distance running. if you’ve done a maximum squat you know…the heart is involved. by “the heart” i don’t mean emotions. i mean the heart.
a yuge part of sprinting is the cv system. but no one thinks of it that way.
running 100m is like lifting 1,000lbs.
it’s not just muscle or nerves or coordination, it’s the cv system.
an elite sprinter’s heart is different. i bet.
In regards to the elaborate on the heart, while training could ameliorate difference, in long distances where heart endurance would be a factor then that could be a Eurasian advantage.
As I see it a Eurasian at long distance dashes like 400m. with just enough speed/pace could be many West African descents, but if you have people like M. Johnson that can not only has endurance but also likely fiber types to actually provide alot of power and he conserves it then that might change things. At that point I say it is a toss up
As for Micahel, he’s odd in in terms of morphology in an ethnic sense, narrow faced but long torsoed, I’d say he is closest to Palaenegrid and sudanid type noted to be common in Nigeria or even Bantu subtypes.
the heart is a muscle.
it’s not just endurance vs not endurance.
a 100m sprint requires the heart to sprint too.
By “heart endurance” I meant heart/circulatory quality in General. Hence why I said “Heart endurance” and not “muscle endurance”, so I get it.
The thing is that, unlike you, I’m putting it in clear terms and not vague simplistic analogies.
the new bolt, according to bolt himself, is the cape-colored van niekerk, world record holder in the 400m.
silver in the 200m at the 2017 world’s, behind a caucasian, guliyev.
guliyev has also run 9.97 in the 100m. van niekerk has run 9.94.
niekerk is obviously more than just a mulatto.
At least one genetic study indicates that Cape Coloureds have an ancestry consisting of the following ethnic groups:
Bantu-speaking Africans: (20–36%)
Ethnic groups in Europe: (21–28%)
Asian peoples: (9–11%)
Nothing particularly enlightening. Regarding Niekerk, seeing how endurance like in distance running becomes important, his ethnic background isn’t that shocking in relation to muscle fibers.
Given how, you are also dealing with a mixed race individual, that buy itself doesn’t tell much about what “racial trends” make up his advantages with deeper analysis.
By itself, him achieving on such a variable scale is pretty much expected from someone of his background.
As for Guliyev, being of Azerbaijan, he seems to be Armenoid, a rather Lanky Eurasian form with a convex nose and short head though here he seems to be somewhat more medium headed. Likely Med, inluence.
With sprinting training aided by a cooperating body type as well as an advantage in endurance, noted by his 200 gold medal compared to his Silver 100m, his record of 9.94 isn’t surprising.
ALso, this is worth mentioning regarding European sprinters and Muscle fiber types.
Both Pavoni and Mennea being high in some form of Type II.
If the Same holds for genetically similar West Eurasian Countries like the Caucasus then we can get an idea of Ramil’s profile, I’m guessing IIA2