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Science is one of Man’s greatest methods. Being a social convention, science is done in conjunction with other people. Since a “method” is how goals are achieved, then using a “scientific method”, then we would be achieving scientific goals. What we now know as “science” was formulated by F. Bacon in 1621 in his Novum Organum. He describes three steps (1) Collect facts; (2) classify the facts into certain categories; and (3) reject what does not cohere with the hypothesis and accept what does. But before F. Bacon espoused what many hold to be the bedrock of modern science, there was another Bacon that developed similar ideas to F. Bacon.
Some of the very beginnings of the practice now known as “science” can be attributed to Roger Bacon. R. Bacon is even called “Britain’s first scientist” (Sidebottom, 2013). R. Bacon developed his thought on the basis of Islamic scholar Ibn al-Haytham’s empirical method. The principles of what are now known as science (or should I say scientism?) were first expressed by R. Bacon in the 15th Century Dingus Manuscript:
Having laid down fundamental principles of the wisdom of the Latins so far as they are found in language, mathematics, and optics, I now wish to unfold the principles of experimental science, since without experiment nothing can be sufficiently known. There are two ways of acquiring knowledge, one through reason, the other by experiment. Argument reaches a conclusion and compels us to admit it, but it neither makes us certain nor so annihilates doubt that the mind rests calm in the intuition of truth, unless it finds this certitude by way of experience. Thus many have arguments toward attainable facts, but because they have not experienced them, they overlook them and neither avoid a harmful nor follow a beneficial course. Even if a man that has never seen fire, proves by good reasoning that fire burns, and devours and destroys things, nevertheless the mind of one hearing his arguments would never be convinced, nor would he avoid fire until he puts his hand or some combustible thing into it in order to prove by experiment what the argument taught. But after the fact of combustion is experienced, the mind is satisfied and lies calm in the certainty of truth. Hence argument is not enough, but experience is. (Quoted in Sidebottom, 2013; Sidebottom’s emphasis)
This seems to me to be a proto-view of ‘scientism‘—the claim that we can only gain knowledge through our five senses. When R. Bacon said that “argument is not enough, but experience is”, this is a clear predecessor to current scientistic thinking. The a priori is irrelevant to the a posteriori. That is, empirical evidence is irrelevant to a priori (deductive) arguments. In any case, R. Bacon’s writings on this matter were partly the catalyst for Europe’s scientific revolution. You can also see how R. Bacon distinguished between deductive and inductive arguments/thinking—which would come into play in 1600s Europe. Lastly, there is no “either-or” here, as both modes of thinking (deduction and induction) are more than sufficient for generating knowledge.
Deductive reasoning (which was pioneered by Rene Descartes) is where we attempt to see the implications of information that we already know. For example, one can construct an a priori argument—an argument that provides justification for thinking that p (a proposition) is true based on thinking or understanding p. If all of the premises in the argument are true, then the conclusion necessarily follows. On the other hand, inductive reasoning (pioneered by R. and F. Bacon) is where we attempt to located patterns in natural phenomena while attempting to predict what will occur under controlled conditions (or amassing observations to draw specific conclusions). For example. a scientist can observe a phenomenon and then predict what will occur under the controlled environment of an experiment. The conclusion in inductive arguments is not certain (as it is in deductive arguments); it is only a prediction of what may be. Inductive and deductive reasoning need not be at ends, though. (lest we fall into the trap of scientism—the claim that all knowledge is derived from the 5 senses).
F. Bacon argued that, attempted attempts to falsify (that is, test) and verify hypotheses is group effort. That is, science is a social convention. Science is predicated on prediction—predicting the future from what we currently know under a set of controlled conditions (the scientific experiment). Basically, a scientific prediction is a claim about an event that has yet to transpire. So the test of an explanatory theory is whether or not it is successful at predicting novel facts (facts that were unknown before the formulation of the hypothesis). And if a hypothesis generates a novel fact-of-the-matter, then we are justified in believing the hypothesis since the only way the prediction would come to pass would be either (1) the hypothesis is true or (2) chance. If the same result keeps generating, then we can be justified in stating the prediction that is derived from the hypothesis is not due to chance, so one can then be justified in the belief of the scientific hypothesis. This is what is known as “predictivism.” But there is a danger we must be wary of—we must take care to not retrofit facts in order to save a pet theory. A theory has to have some reach outside of what is already known; this is where the generation of novel facts comes into play.
Even before F. Bacon, the scientific method did have a predecessor (who came after R. Bacon) in the works of Galileo, Copernicus, Tycho, and Kepler. Going against the accepted wisdom of the day, Copernicus claimed that the sun—and not the earth—was the center of the solar system; the earth rotates and this rotation is what causes the seasons; and that all planets revolve around the sun. Copernicus did this only using his eyes, as the telescope was invented by Galileo in 1608. This came to be known as Copernicus’ “helio-centric” theory—the theory that the sun, and not the earth, was at the center of the solar system. During the European middle ages, the people were more religious (even though science was just starting to blossom), and since they were religious they believed in God and thought that Man was special. He is the ‘highest’ organism, has dominion over all animals, and the plane that God created for them is the center of it all.
But when Galileo pointed his telescope at the heavens, he had then confirmed Copernicus’ hypothesis that planets revolve around the sun; the sun does not revolve around the earth. He discovered this by observing the moons of Jupiter (what he called the “4 Medicean stars”), which he then mapped in the night sky. Galileo’s obtaining and analyzing of data is seen as science “before science”, as he utilized methods that scientists use today of observation and prediction (which were also espoused in previous centuries).
Tycho was not like Copernicus; instead of believing in what we currently know about the solar system, he—using observation—suggested that the planets orbited the sun and then the whole system revolves around the earth. So Tycho could account for different planets, but he did not upset the Ptolemiac order that the earth was the center of the system. Then, in the late 1590s, Tycho took all of the data that he had amassed over the years and became the court astronomer to the Holy Roman emperor. This is where Tycho met Johannes Kepler. Kepler had believed that everything that was created had been created according to mathematical laws. After Tycho died, Kepler inherited Tycho’s position and all of his notes and data. Tycho, being an Aristotlean, believed that the planets had a circular orbit and that planetary motion was uniform. But Kepler showed that the planets had an elliptical orbit (his first law) and that planetary speed varies as a function of distance from the sun (his second law).
Now, today, we have a four-step scientific method which is somewhat similar to what R. and F. Bacon, Galileo, and Copernicus used: (1) Observe; (2) formulate a hypothesis to explain the observation; (3) predict effects using the hypothesis; and (4) carry out experiments to see if the predicted effects hold. Now, that is very simplistic today. There is no one “scientific method”, although we can identify ways in which scientists use similar methods to derive their conclusions based on their hypotheses and experiments. If you think about it, there are numerous different fields of science, so why should there be “one true scientific method”?
Copernicus, Galileo, and R. and F. Bacon have all paved the way for the modern world, while creating and utilizing tools and modes of thought that are still in-use today. Copernicus and Galileo overturned the centuries-old knowledge of that day which were based on unfounded assumptions and replaced them with a method in which one has to observe a thing, so one would assume that it has something to do with “reality.” The observations by Copernicus and Galileo led to them being seen as heretics since they went against the Church’s teachings and so, they were driven out of society. As can be seen throughout history, developing something new to further develop knowledge and thought to challenge current-day hierarchies may have seemed like a bad idea at the time (to Galileo), but in the end, the truth won out: He used the principles of science and he learned a new fact.
Newton was interested in optics, mathematics, and gravity. Newton had shown that light was produced by different-colored rays, which refuted Descartes’ belief that color was a a secondary quality which was produced by the speed of particulate rotation and that light was actually white. He also had invented integral and differential calculus. Lastly, and perhaps what he was most famously known for, was his theory of gravity. Why did the apple fall straight down and not, say, sideways? Why, it’s because it was drawn to the earth. (Newton did not speak on what causes gravity. It was when Edmund Halley (discover of Halley’s comet) had asked Newton if there was any mathematical proof for the claim that the planets had elliptical orbits.
But what does it mean to “explain a phenomenon scientifically”? A “phenomenon” is an observable thing that happens. Science deals with nature, with things that occur in nature. “What happened?” and “Why did it happen?” are two questions an inquisitive mind may ask. The scientist asks questions, so in a way they create puzzles for themselves which is what a “scientist” is to Kuhn (1996: 144), “a solver of puzzles, not a tester of paradigms.” So if we are attempting to explain a phenomenon scientifically, we are attempting to solve a puzzle—how and why something may happen, for example.
What can be seen today—just as it could be seen over 500 years ago with Galileo and Copernicus—is that science is a social institution that is driven by politics, contrary to those who claim that scientists are “objective observers in a search for truth.” The biases of scientists—and the society they are in—influence both their research questions AND their conclusions from their research. Their own prejudices and preconceptions cloud their thoughts, what they want to research, and the conclusions they draw. If science is a human tool, then science will be used for whatever the human wants it to be used for. Social institutions can definitely attempt to stymie certain forms of research (like what happened to Galileo AND NOT hereditarians in the 1900s to the present-day, see Jackson and Winston, 2020). So we can see how science can be used to confirm or de-confirm certain things (i.e., people’s preconceived notions about the world). Thomas Kuhn said that “The answers you get depend on the questions you ask.” And, if you think about certain questions that certain people who fancy themselves scientists may ask, then quite obviously the conclusion (the answer) is already known and they are trying to justify their own prejudices and a priori beliefs (eg hereditarians).
Using the methods developed by Francis and Roger Bacon (no relation), we have achieved what our ancestors would have thought impossible—they would have called much of what we do today “magic” since they would not understand—that is, they would not have the frame of reference—that what they are seeing is natural, coming from the natural world. The modern world needed the scientific revolution that came from Europe, as without it (along with what was invented at the time and thought that would later become the bedrock for inventions and scientific thought today), the world would be a different place. What the so-called ‘heretics’ of the time showed was perseverance and getting what they thought to be the truth out no matter the cost and with these thoughts and ways of thinking and seeing the world, they changed it.
Another day, another slew of articles full of fear mongering. This one is on sperm decline in the West. Is it true? I have recently covered on this blog that as of July 17th, 2017, the testosterone range for men decreased (more on that when I get access to the paper). I have also covered the obesity epidemic a bit, and that also factors in to lowered testosterone and, of course, low spermatoza count. Due to these environmental factors, we can logically deduce that sperm counts have fallen as well. However, as I will cover, it may not be so cut and dry due to analyzing numerous studies with different counting methodologies among numerous other confounds that will be addressed below. First I will cover the physiology of sperm production and what may cause decreases in production. Next, I will cover the new study that is being passed around. Finally, I will talk about why you should worry about this.
Physiology of sperm production
The accumulation of testosterone by ABP leads to the onset and rising rate of sperm production. So if testosterone production ceases or decreases, then subsequent decreases in sperm count and spermatogenesis should follow. If this change is drastic, infertility will soon follow. The process of sperm production is called spermatogenesis. It occurs in the seminiforous tubules and involves three main events: 1) remodeling relatively large germ cells into smaller mobile cells with flagella, 2) reducing the chromosome number by half, and 3) shuffling the genes so that each chromosome in the sperm carries novel gene combinations that differ from the parents. This is what ensures that a child will differ from their parents but still, at the same time, will be similar to them. The process by which this occurs is called meiosis, in which four daughter cells split which subsequently differentiate sperm (Saladin, 2010: 1063).
After the conclusion of meiosis I, each chromosome is still double stranded, except each daughter cell only has 23 chromosomes becoming a haploid while at the end of meiosis II, there are four haploid cells with 23 single-stranded chromosomes. Fertilization then combined the 23 chromosomes from the father and mother, which “reestablishes the diploid number of 46 chromosomes in the zygote“(Saladin, 2010: 1063-1064).
Spermatogonia divide by mitosis and then enlarge to become primary spermatocyte. The cell is then protected from the immune system since it is going to become genetically different from the rest of the cells in the body. Since the cells are guarded from the body’s immune system, the main spermatocyte undergoes meiosis I, giving rise to equal size haploid and genetically unique secondary spermatocytes. Then, each secondary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis II dividing into two spermatids with a total of four spermatogoniom. Lastly, the spermatozoa undergo no further division but undergoes spermiogenesis in which it differentiates into a single spermatozoon (Saladin, 2010: 1065-1066). Young men produce about 300,000 sperm per minute, about 400 million per day.
The new study was published on July 25, 2017, in the journal Human Reproduction Update titled Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Levine et al (2017) used 185 studies (n=42,935) and showed a sperm count (SC) decline of .75 percent per year, coming out to a 28.5 percent decrease between 1975 and 2011. Similar declines were seen in total sperm count (TSC) while 156 estimates of serum volume showed little change.
Figure 2a shows the mean sperm concentration between the years 1973 and 2011. Figure 2b shows the mean total sperm count between those same years.
Figure 3a shows sperm concentration for the West (North America, Australia, Europe and New Zealand) vs Other (South America, Asia, and Africa), adjusted for potential confounders such as BMI, smoking etc. Figure 3b shows total sperm count by fertility and the West and Other. You can see that Fertile Other had a sharp increase, but the increase may be due to limited statistical power and a lack of studies of unselected men from those countries before 1985. There is a sharp increase for Other, however and so the data does not support as sharp of a decline as observed in Western countries.
If this is true, why is this happening? Factors that decrease spermatogenesis include (but are not limited to): obesity, smoking, exposure to traffic exhaust fumes, and combustion products. Though there is no data (except animal models) that lend credence to the idea that pesticides, food additives, etc decrease spermatogenesis (Sharpe, 2010). Other factors are known to cause lower SC which includes maternal smoking, alcohol, stress, endocrine disruptors, persistent and nonpersistent chemicals, and, perhaps most importantly today, the use of mobile phones and the wireless Internet (Virtanen, Jorgansen, and Toparri, 2017). Radiation exposure due to constant mobile phone use may cause DNA fragmentation and decreased sperm mobility (Gorpinchenko et al, 2014). Clearly, most of this decrease can largely be ameliorated. Exercise, eating right, and not smoking seem to be the most immediate changes that can and will contribute to an increase in SC in Western men. This will also increase testosterone levels. The cause is largely immobility due to the comfortable lifestyles that we in the West have. So by becoming more active and putting down smartphones, we can then begin to reverse this downward trend.
Saladin (2010: 1067) also states that pollution has deleterious effects on reproduction—and by proxy, sperm production. He states that the evidence is mounting that we are showing declining fertility due to “anatomical abnormalities” in water, meat, vegetables, breast milk and the uterus. He brings up that sperm production decreased in 15,000 men in 1990, decreasing from 113 million/ml in 1940 to 66 million/ml in 1990. Sperm production decreased more, he says, since “the average volume of semen per ejaculate has dropped 19% over this period” (Saladin, 2010: 1067).
Saladin (2010: 1067) further writes:
The pollutants implicated in this trend include a wide array of common herbicides, inseciticides, industrial chemicals, and breakdown products of materials ranging from plastics to dishwashing detergents. Some authorities think these chemicals act by mimicking estrogens by blocking the action of testosterone by binding to its receptors. Other scientists, however, question the data and feel the issue may be overstated. While the debate continues, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is screening thousands of industrial chemicals for endocrine effects.
Is it really true?
As seen above, the EPA is investigating whether thousands of industrial chemicals of effects on our endocrine system. If this is true, it occurs due to the binding of these chemicals to androgen receptors, blocking the production of testosterone and thusly sperm production. However, some commentators have contested the results of studies that purport to show a decrease in SC in men over the decades.
Sherins and Delbes are critical of such studies. They rightly state that most of these studies have numerous confounds such as:
1) lack of standardized counting measures, 2) bias introduced by using different counting methodologies, 3) inadequate within-individual semen sampling in the analysis, 4) failure to account for variable abstinence intervals and ejaculatory frequency, 5) failure to assess total sperm output rather than concentration, 6) failure to assess semen parameteres other than the number of sperm, 7) failure to account for age of subject, 8) subject selection bias among comparitive studies, 9) inappropriate statistical analysis, 10) ignoring major geographic differences in sperm counts, and 11) the causal equating of male ferility with sperm count per se.
Levine et al (2017) write:
We controlled for a pre-determined set of potential confounders: fertility group, geographic group, age, abstinence time, whether semen collection and counting methods were reported, number of samples per man and indicators for exclusion criteria (Supplementary Table S1).
So they covered points 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. This study is very robust. Levine et al (2017) replicate numerous other studies showing that sperm count has decreased in Western men (Centola et al, 2015; Senputa et al, 2017; Virtanen, Jorgensen, and Toparri, 2017). Men Southern Spain show normal levels (Fernandez et al, 2010), while Southern Spanish University students showed a decrease (Mendiola et al, 2013). The same SC decrease has been noted in Brazil in the last ten years (Borges Jr. et al, 2015).
However, te Velde and Bonde (2013) in their paper Misconceptions about falling sperm counts and fertility in Europe contest the results of studies that argue that SC has decreased within the last 50 years stating that, for instance in Denmark, the median values remained between 40-45 million sperm per ml in the 15 years analyzed. They also state that declining birth rates can be explained by cultural and social factors, such as contraception, the female emancipation, and the second demographic transition. Clearly, ferility rates are correlated with the human development index (HDI) meaning that more developed countries have a lower birth rate in comparison to less developed countries. I believe that part of the reason why we in the West have lower birth rates is because there are too many things to for us to do to occupy our time, time that could be used to have children, like going to school to pursue Masters degrees and PhDs, to just wanting more ‘me time’.
Te Velde and Bonde (2013) conclude:
‘Whether the sperm concentration and human fecundity have declined during the past 50 years is a question we will probably never be able to answer’. This statement by Olsen and Rachootin in 200348 still holds for sperm concentration despite the report in 1992. In the meantime, we know that the results of oft-repeated studies from Copenhagen and Malmö do not indicate any notable change in sperm count during the last 10–15 years. Moreover, none of the available evidence points to a decline in couple fecundity during the last 30–40 years, including Denmark.28 Moreover, birth rates and TFRs instead of declining are on the increase in many EU countries, including the spectacular rise in Denmark.34
Echoing the same sentiments, Cocuzza and Esteves (2014) conclude “that there is no enough evidence to confirm a worldwide decline in sperm counts or other semen parameters. Also, there is no scientific truth of a causative role for endocrine disruptors in the temporal decline of sperm production as observed in some studies. We conjecture that a definite conclusion would only be achieved if good quality collaborative long-term research was carried out, including aspects such as semen quality, reproductive hormones, and xenobiotics, as well as a strict definition of fecundity.” Merzenich, Zeeb, and Blettner (2010) also caution that “The observed time trend in semen quality might be an artefact, since the methodological differences between studies might be time dependent as well. Intensive research will be necessary in both clinical and epidemiological domains. More studies are needed with strict methodological standards that investigate semen quality obtained from large samples of healthy men representative for the normal male population.”
Clearly, this debate is long and ongoing, and I doubt that even Levine et al (2017) will be good enough for some researchers.
There are various papers for and against a decrease in sperm production in the West, just like with testosterone. However, there are ways we can deduce that SC has fallen in the West, since we have definitive data that testosterone levels have decreased. This, then, would lead to a decrease in sperm production and then fecundity and number of children conceived by couples. Of course, sociocultural factors are involved, as well as immediate environmental ones that are immediately changeable. Even if there is no scientific consensus on industrial chemicals and effects on the endocrine system, you should stay away from those too. One major reason for the decrease in sperm production—if the decrease is true—is increased mobile phone usage. Mobile phone usage has increased and so this would lower SC over time.
Whether or not the decrease in SC is true or not, every man should take steps to lead a healthier lifestyle without their cell phone. Because if this decrease is true (and Other doesn’t show a decrease as well) then it would be due to the effects of our First World societies, which would mean that we need to change how we live our lives to get back on the right track. Clearly, we must change our diets and our lifestyles. I’ve written numerous articles about how testosterone is strongly mediated by the environment, and that testosterone production in men has decreased since Western men have been, in a way, feminized and not been as dominant. This can and does decrease testosterone production which would, in turn, decrease sperm production and decrease fertility rates.
Nevertheless, taking steps to leading a healthier lifestyle will ameliorate a ton of the problems that we have in the West, which are mainly due to low birth rates, and by ameliorating these problems, the quality of life will the increase in the West. I am skeptical of the decrease due to what was brought up above, but nevertheless I assume that it is true and I hope my readers do too—if only to get some fire under you to lead a healthier lifestyle if you do not do so already as to prevent these problems before they occur and lead to serious deleterious health consequences.
(I am undecided leaning towards yes. There are too many behaviors linked to lower SC which Western men partake in. There are numerous confounds which may have not been controlled for, however knowing the main reasons why men have lower sperm count and the increased prevalence in these behaviors, we can logically deduce that sperm count has fallen too. Look to the testosterone decrease, that causes both low sperm count and lower fertility.)
In my first article on this matter, I showed how Richard Lynn claims the average IQ in Italy is around “89-92” for Sicily and the South and around 103 for the North. I showed how he was wrong and what data he overlooked to fit his hypothesis. Lynn’s 2011 article IQs in Italy are higher in the north: A reply to Felice and Giugliano was a reply to Myth and reality: A response to Lynn on the determinants of Italy’s North–South imbalances. Felice and Giugliano brought up Lynn’s four main theses: a) the South’s “economic backwardness” in terms of economics ‘throughout history’; b) the evidence provided by Lynn wasn’t enough to ‘prove’ a cause of lower IQ for S. Italians; c) the evidence provided by Lynn wasn’t enough to show that S. Italians score lower than N. Italians; and d) the supposed ‘high rates of MENA admixture’ in S. Italians. I blew up all of these claims in the beginning of the year, more specifically I blew up up the claims about MENA admixture back in January. I’ll be going through Lynn’s 2010b article correcting any discrepancies. It’s worth noting that he still pushes the so-called ‘MENA admixture’ as being a substantial CAUSAL factor when there is NO evidence for this big of a ‘gap’ between the North and the South. The Lynn quotes will be from his 2010 paper linked above. I had also thought that ‘migrants’ from MENA countries could have contributed to the gap between the North and South, but since this isn’t the case for France then it shouldn’t be so for Italy. However, since Italy is a hub for these people when they first illegally enter Europe, they may stay and get counted as citizens and the children of these immigrants grow up and get accounted in the data. This is plausible, since a lot of ‘migrants’ may stay where they first get which is Southern Europe, mainly Sicily and Southern Italy.
We now present new data showing that IQs are higher in the north of Italy than in the south. In the previous study, data were presented for 12 Italian regions from the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) 2006 study of the reading comprehension, mathematics and science performance of 15 year olds, regarded as measures of intelligence. We are now able to give similar data on the reading comprehension, mathematics and science performance of 15 year olds in 20 Italian regions obtained in the 2009 PISA study (OECD, 2010). These are given in Table 1. This shows, reading from left to right, the latitude of the Italian regions, the mean PISA scores for 12 regions for 2006 given in Lynn (2010a), the mean scores of 15 year olds on reading comprehension, mathematics and science understanding for the 20 Italian regions obtained in the 2009 PISA study, and the averages of the three 2009 PISA scores given because it provides a convenient summary of the scores on the three tests.
I already went through this in my previous article, but for clarity, I’ll go through this again.
Cornoldi, Giofrè, and Martini (2013) showed how there are problems inferring Italian IQ from the very PISA data that Lynn cites. There was a relevant decrease between the North and South. If the PISA test showed genetic proclivities between the North and South, why was there a relevant decrease in the three-year period? Because it is not an intelligence test, but a test of educational achievement. D’Amico et al (2011) conclude:
Our examination of intelligence test score differences between the north and south of Italy led to results that are very different from those reached by Lynn (2010a). Our results demonstrate that by using intelligence tests to assess differences in ability rather than using achievement scores as a proxy for intelligence, children from the south of Italy did not earn lower scores than those from the north of Italy. Rather, they were even higher in Raven’s CPM. However, we see no advantage in claiming that children in the south are “more intelligent” than children in the north, because these groups are different on a number of variables (e.g., environmental factors, educational influences, composition of the samples) that influence differences in test scores.
Either no difference or Southern Italians scored higher. When using purer measures of intelligence (Raven’s Progressive Matrices) so-called “differences” in “intelligence” disappear.
It will be noted that the regional differences in both language and math ability increase with age. For example, in language ability the regional differences in the youngest children (P2) range between 1.6 and −3.8, a difference of 5.4, while the differences in the oldest children (2S) range between 3.6 and −4.4, a difference of 8.0. Similarly, in math ability the regional differences in the youngest children (P2) range between 0.8 and −1.0, a difference of 1.8, while the differences in the oldest children (2S) range between 4.3 and −5.4, a difference of 9.7. These age differences would be predicted from the thesis that the regional differences have a genetic basis, because the heritability of intelligence increases during childhood (Plomin, DeFries, & McClearn, 1980, p. 334).
On other measures of achievement, such as the INVALSI examinations, Southern Italians do not score lower, and in some cases may even score higher (Robinson, Saggino, and Tommasi (2011). Moreover, the N/S differences in ‘cognitive ability’ don’t exist at age 7, the IQ/income relationship didn’t exist in the past, and the MENA admixture in Southern Italians is minute (Daniel and Malanima, 2011). The so-called MENA admixture that Nordicists and Lynn like to say is the subject of my next point.
Further data for the proportion of North African ancestry in the Italian regions are available in the frequency of the haplogroup E1b1b allele. This is a marker for North African ancestry, where it reaches frequencies above 50% and peaks at around 82% in Tunisia (Zalloua et al., 2008). The frequencies of the haplogroup xR1 and the E1b1b alleles are taken from Capelli et al. (2006), Capelli et al. (2007), Di Giacomo et al. (2003), Balaresque et al. (2010), Scozzari et al. (2001), and Semino et al. (2000). These data are given in columns 11 and 12 of Table 1 and the correlations between these and the other variables are given in Table 2.
As said and cited above, the so-called admixture from MENA populations in Southern Italians accounts for an extremely small fraction of the overall Southern Italian genome. The cause for lower achievement (“IQ” according to Lynn) in Southern Italians rests on this very pertinent point. And it’s wrong. Furthermore, and this is for Sicilians, the contribution of their genome by the Greeks is 37 percent, with the North African contribution being 6 percent. Daniel and Malanima (2011) ask ” Can the Greek heritage to the Western culture really be associated to a lower IQ?” The answer is, clearly, no. Moreover, a Central Italian province has the highest amount of MENA admixture, yet they have higher scores than Southern Italy. What does that tell you?
Richard Lynn’s Italian IQ data is garbage. Purer measures of intelligence such as Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices show a decrease in the “intelligence gap” and in some cases, Southern Italians score higher than Northern Italians. When using measures of “IQ” from PISA data, these so-called differences disappear. Lynn’s data he cites in his 2010a paper don’t control for socio-cultural differences and school quality. There is numerous data that suggests the school quality in Southern Italy is worse than that of the North; this difference in school quality then affects educational achievement. Since PISA is a test of educational achievement and not intelligence (D’Amico et al, 2011), what accounts for these differences in achievement in the various studies may (and in my opinion, does) account for the differences in educational achievement between Northern and Southern Italians. The measurements in various studies may be influenced by the larger between-schools variability that is present in the South (Cornoldi et al, 2010; Daniel and Malanima 2011).
Finally, some people may point to the GDP differences between North and South Italy as proof of genetic/intelligence differences between them. However, the Mafia accounts for around a 20 percent drop in GDP in Southern Italy. To say that any differences in GDP can be accounted for without first controlling for things like this is dishonest. The presence of Mafia in areas shows lower growth and a sharper increase in murders. Each time homicides rise, GDP falls between 16-20 percent (Pinolli 2012). The presence of the Mafia had a devastating effect on the economies in that area between the 70s and 00s.
In sum, PISA is garbage to infer intelligence from as they are tests of achievement and not intelligence. Other tests of achievement show a decrease in the gap and/or Southern Italians scoring higher. Moreover, no substantial genetic differences exist between the North and the South, falsifying Lynn’s thesis for the causality of the differences between the North and the South. The oft-cited GDP difference between Northern and Southern Italy can be accounted for by the presence of the Mafia. Whenever the murder rate rises (due to Mafia activity), the GDP decreases. None of these factors have been taken into account and they explain the difference between the North and the South. It is environmental in nature–not genetic. Lynn’s Italian IQ data is garbage and should not be cited. It’s just a Nordicist fantasy that Southern Italians score lower than Nothern Italians.
A lot of people seem to confuse causes between ‘Islam’ and behavior that’s just ‘low IQ’. Whenever these attacks like shootings, sexual assaults and rapes happen, that’s due to their low IQ; not religion. I wrote about this in IQ, Inbreeding and Clannishness. All of the behavior you see is due to low IQ. 1) being in an area with a hot climate and 2) cousin marriage has been going on there ever since Jews from the Levant introduced it to them around 200 BC. To quote myself:
Those innate behaviors which result in the favoring in all areas of life, themselves and their family, is a result of genetic similarity because of the closely related genes they share (the father’s brother’s daughter type is the most common in the Muslim world). Also, first and second cousin marriages are more common, which also result in increased altruism for their own family because of the close genetic similarity, but also those in their own group, which is mediated by the brain hormone oxytocin.
In a paper on the mean IQ of Muslims and non-Muslim countries, Donald Templer states that the Muslim world, which used to be have great intellectual achievements from the 7th to 12th centuries, has seen an underrepresentation in highly creative contributions in science journals. This is because of the inbreeding effect (2.5 to 10 point drop in IQ) of close cousin marriage. He ends up saying that genetic factors are more important than social/cultural/religious values (back to the inbreeding, causing defects and lowering IQ) in regards to IQ.
I also put a map of individualism and collectivism in Europe here. You can see that the collectivist countries are fighting back more. The countries/regions where it’s more red roughly matches up to the situation. You can see how in Central, Northern and Northwestern Europe they’re more individualistic, as well as more atheist, than those collectivist countries. So that leads to what we see with this ‘welcome refugees’ signs, as well as, I would assume, more oxytocin in the brain for Europeans, which leads to more altruism towards other peoples. Of course, 1000 years ago, the high altruism was fine due to being a mostly homogeneous society. But when others move in who are not from the area, and who do not have the same biology as you due to certain selection pressures, that’s when the ‘clash of cultures’ commences. Which it’s not really a clash of culture, more like a clash of biology, because 2 groups who shouldn’t live together are being forced to live together.
This also brings me to people who confuse the causality between Islam and blacks. As I said, it’s a low IQ religion (which I have provided enough evidence for my case). So blacks who become Muslim do so because of low IQ. Anything after that doesn’t mean that being a Muslim had them do it. Lets say that Islam never popped up and the same peoples were still there, continuing such close inbreeding, would that be Islam doing it? No. It’s their biology. **
Using environmental factors (Islam, culture) is what leftists do. In my post on behavior not equaling genes plus environment, I showed how people create their own environments based on their own genetics. The environment we put ourselves in is based on our genetics. We can clearly see that Islam is bringing their culture (genetics) to Europe and are incompatible with Europe as well as all Western societies around the world. Due to this, we can see that wherever any population goes, it will be the same from the original place they emigrated from if migration in large enough numbers occurs. A country is only as good as its majority population.
In Non-Western People are Abnormal to Our Societies, I showed how due to differing cultures (genetics), these third-world immigrants coming into our countries cannot readily assimilate due to differing average IQs and other hormones that lead to crime differentials with the native population. Though Arabs are Caucasian, evolving closer to the equator lead to higher levels of testosterone as more exposure to the sun increases vitamin D levels, which is not a vitamin but actually a steroid hormone. These differences in testosterone then lead to more sex attacks with high testosterone combined with low IQ. Lower IQ people are less likely to be virgins than higher IQ people. This shows that higher IQ people have less testosterone and can also hold back urges more than lower IQ people. This then translates over to an increase of sexual assaults by ‘migrants’ to European women. These ‘abnormalities’, though, would be abnormal anywhere. Putting differing cultures (genetics) in a place with a completely different culture will lead to strife due to genetic distance between the two populations.
I wrote in Evolutionary Reasons for Suicide Bombings that Muslims who suicide bomb do so to increase inclusive fitness. The increase in inclusive fitness comes about due to the suicide bomber having no prospects as well as no kids, so he/she is just taking up resources. By committing suicide, they are freeing resources for others who have a better chance to spread their genes. Many suicide bombers come from middle-class backgrounds, which further proves the case for genetic interests being the cause for this. The majority of Al-Qaeda members come from educated, middle-class backgrounds. Even for Palestinian suicide bombers, none of them were poor, uneducated, simple minded nor depressed.
The average IQ for a criminal is 85 adult offenders, 92 for juvenile offenders. What’s the average IQ in the Middle East? 81, around 1.3 SD lower than average, and 4 points lower for chronic adult offenders in America. The lower IQ comes from being more inbred, which then manifests itself in the crime rate. The strife in the middle east can also be traced back to IQ and consanguinity rates in those populations. How inbred a population is predicts IQ as well as how much strife occurs in those populations.
Germany has said they will begin IQ testing their ‘migrants’. If it works well (I highly doubt it will, and if it is, it won’t be implemented well) this could curb some attacks that happen. Since IQ differences between populations are one of the biggest causes for crime differentials (lower IQ is also correlated with higher testosterone) between them, screening for and only allowing high IQ ‘migrants’ in would curb some violent crime and sex attacks if implemented on a wide enough scale. IQ differences between populations are one of the biggest reasons for differences between any population you can think of.
For a comparison, we can use Christian Arabs. Christian Arabs are less inbred than Muslim Arabs, which shows in the amount of terror attacks committed by Christian Arabs, which I can’t find any data for. If anyone has found any, leave a comment. hbdchick then says this about consanguinity between Christian Arabs and Muslim Arabs:
so, the rate of cousin-marriage amongst lebanese christians was 16.5% while the rate for muslims approached double that at 29.6%.
christians married cousins more distant than first cousins at a slightly higher rate than they did first cousins: 8.6% (>1C) versus 7.9% (1C). muslims, on the other hand, favored first cousin marriage: 17.3% (1C) versus 12.3% (>1C). this is a similar pattern found elsewhere in the middle east/arab world. in egypt, for instance, copts tend to marry second cousins while muslims tend to marry first cousins (no, i can’t find the reference!).
there was also more fbd marriage amongst muslims (6.4%) versus christians (3%).
This is directly mirrored in how often we hear about Christian Arab attacks and crime (I haven’t heard of this), showing that consanguinity rates can predict crime rates. Due to this extreme inbreeding, they are more genetically similar, which leads to higher amounts of altruism for their own group, in turn leading to derogation of the out-group. Europeans are, on average, less inbred than Muslims. This is why it’s said that Muslims are incompatible with our societies. They are more clannish and altruistic for their own. Like JP Rushton said, groups will proliferate ideas that are good for their genetic interests.
Even more evidence can be shown with Chechen inbreeding. I can’t find any data on Chechen IQ, so lets use the closest country to Chechnya, which is Georgia with an average of 94. Since inbreeding can depress IQ 2.5 to 10 points, Chechnya’s average IQ should be somewhere around the mid-80s. This shows similarity with the consanguinity rate. hbdchick then concludes:
it’s no wonder, then, that they still engage in blood feuds (just like the albanians). you’d half expect them to build tower houses for protection during clan disputes like the albanians or the maniots.
Muslim (Arab) populations are incompatible to Western societies due to how inbred they are. Their own societies are built on their genetics, which they then bring to the West and attempt to bring what they’re running from to their new host country.
In conclusion, whenever people say “it’s Islam doing it”, it’s low IQ behavior. Those with lower IQ are more likely to be drawn to Islam. Islam developed after 1300 years after the start of Arab inbreeding. We can draw, from IQ from American criminals, that 85 is the sweet spot for criminality, and since criminality is correlated with low IQ more so than any other variable you can think of. A good example of this is a low IQ person coaxed into committing a crime. It’s an obvious biological difference, the sociopolitical garbage is just that, garbage. The biology drives the politics. Consanguinity rates are one of the biggest factors. You should be concerned with the biology aspect.
Note: When I say “Muslim” I mean Arab. I am also not attempting to “apologize” for terror attacks. I’m simply looking at it through the lens of evolutionary psychology. Most people who read this blog know why Africans act the way they act, and African “migrants” are no different.
There is a link between higher IQ and higher ability to be more conscientiousness, which is then linked to the GFP or General Factor of Personality. Two meta-factors were identified beyond the Big Five Personality Traits and were described as ‘Plasticity’ and ‘Stability’ (Deyoung et al, 2002). To quote from the paper:
Stability subsumes Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability (the reverse ofNeuroticism), and Agreeableness, and refers to the extent to whichan individual is consistent in motivation, mood, and social interac-tions. Plasticity encompasses Extraversion and Openness to experi-ence, and refers to the extent to which a person actively searchesfor new and rewarding experiences, both intellectual and social.
Why did this evolve, especially so closely with high intellect? It evolved due to conscientiousness, which is defined as being thorough, careful, and vigilant.That, coincidentally enough, being needed to survive the harsh winters of Northern Europe and Siberia. Higher conscientiousness was is also another reason for the formation of European societies. With being able to be more conscientious, this, along with genetic pacification, is yet another cause for the cucking of Europe.
When our ancestors trekked out of Africa and into Siberia and Northern Europe, they needed differing abilities than those peoples who stayed in the more tropic climates. Those in the tropics, for the most part, could just lounge around all day. With food being readily available, there was really no pressing need to “save” or “partition” their findings (as Africa is full of mostly a hunter-gatherer societies). Conversely, in Europe and Asia, with harsh conditions in regards to their environment, which made food less plentiful than in the tropics, this meant that more cooperation was needed. Due to more cooperation being needed to survive, planning ahead (abstract thought) evolved to better help cope with the harsh environment.
The aforementioned factors in Europe and Asia then led to the higher rates of altruism seen today. Ancient Europeans needed to be thorough, vigilant and careful. Whether they needed to be careful with food storage, how much to eat, whether or not to help someone, etc, it’s clear that conscientiousness evolved with higher intelligence. Since higher intelligence is correlated with those three things involving conscientiousness, they evolved hand in hand, as selection only selects for good traits and discards the ones that aren’t useful.
These two environments that the three races evolved in then set the stage for what’s going on today. With Africans’ lack of conscientiousness, this leads to them not being vigilant, careful or thorough. This can be seen with how sloppy they are when they commit crimes. Their ancestral environment wasn’t conducive to conscientiousness, and in turn, higher IQ, so they evolved without the need of conscientiousness, as their societies (for what they are), function ‘well’ in their perception. This is yet another reason why that we cannot live together. Differing evolutionary strategies lead to these causes, yet we still think we can acclimate some peoples into society when their biology says otherwise.
JP Rushton proposed that the GFP (General Factor of Personality) and IQ were linked. It was found that the correlation between the GFP and IQ was -.23. The higher the g score, the higher the individual scores on the GFP. He noted that the correlation is so low, possibly due to the restricted range of the sample. Rushton provided an argument for the evolutionary process of cognitive ability and personality evolution. This is clear evidence of the GFP and IQ evolving hand-in-hand.
Lacking a high IQ, and therefore, lack of g, Africans (as well as other colored peoples), on average, have lower g and therefore lower conscientiousness, which then is a huge cause for crime. Increases criminality has been correlated, like I’ve said here before, to a lower verbal intelligence. Though this higher IQ and higher GFP is being taken advantage of. Ever since that fateful day in 1964, white pathological altruism has been taken advantage of. Those with lower conscientiousness know they can take advantage of those with higher IQ and higher conscientiousness as altruism is correlated highly with IQ and conscientiousness.
There is an altruistic personality; the altruist has a high IQ, is conscientious, and altruistic. Those on the opposite end of the spectrum, however, take advantage of that and this can be seen with the political climate around the world in regards to other races’ feelings towards whites.Conversely, those who are r-selected and have a low IQ and GFP tend to be more hostile and commit acts of aggression. This multiculturalism due to the altruistic personality on a large scale is one of the reasons for the mass immigration into Western societies. People, as a whole, become collectively altruistic. Then, those lower IQ, lower GFP, r-selected people then take advantage of the more altruistic people. They then turn into a parasitic entity, sucking the host dry before moving on to their next victim.
This is where a high GFP does not work, in multicultural societies. Of course, this is also due to ethnic dissimilarity, but the other thing I brought up along with that ethnic dissimilarity are all of the negative effects of those that are r selected, which, in their own societies is ‘fine’, but to who are K-selected and have complex societies, those behaviors are archaic.
There is a high correlation between low IQ, low conscientiousness, archaic actions, lack of abstract thought, and lack of society building. We know that those with lower IQs commit more crime on average than those with higher IQs.
This is why allowing non-Western people who are abnormal to our societies is a bad move, since they don’t share the same evolutionary track, and therefore, due to differing selections due to evolution, evolved differing behaviors to better adapt to the climate, environment, and surroundings.
Since skin color and IQ correlate at -.92, meaning the darker the skin the lower the IQ and vice versa, this is yet another great assessor on whether an individual has a high IQ, and is, therefore, conscientious. This is due to, as I alluded to earlier, the environment in sub-Saharan Africa being conducive to lack of ability to delay gratification. Due to that, we can infer, on average, whether someone will be conscientious or not. Since their ability to delay gratification is impeded due to certain evolutionary pressures not put on Asians and Europeans, they will, therefore, be less conscientious, which is a crucial building block in maintaining a successful society.
The research of Templer and Arikawa (2006) supports Rushton’s contention that higher intelligence develops in colder climates. They used 129 countries with primarily indigenous populations (Asia, Africa, and Europe) and correlated culture fair IQ (Lynn & Vanhanen, 2002) with temperature. In addition to temperature, Templer and Arikawa used skin color provided by an anthropology book (Biasutti, 1967). IQ correlated .92 with darker skin color, .76 with winter highs, .66 with winter lows, and .63 with per capita income. Previous research by Meisenberg (2004) reported a correlation of .89 between skin reflectance and IQ in a similar study. Templer (2010b) found a correlation of .96 between skin color measure used by the Templer and Arikawa and the one by Meisenberg’s skin reflectance. Because both measures were independently determined using different methodology, they both can be regarded as highly valid measures of skin color.
The cause of these two variables being correlated is evolution. They paired well with each other, so over tens of thousands of years, they got selected for with each other and persisted to today. Since we have modern societies and are much more civil (some of us), we can better see these differences in personality as well as behavior. There are This General Factor of Personality was able to evolve due to evolution in cold climates. The altered intelligence, which then altered personality. This r/K Life History Theory of Rushton’s blend’s beautifully with the GFP and intelligence. Evolution in cold climates along with genetic isolation caused differing evolutionary trajectories for each race/ethnicity which led to differences in crime, IQ, socioeconomic status, sexual maturity, cultures, and so on. There are clear genetic differences brought on by the environment (due to evolution), which leads to differing societies based on differing evolutionary trajectories. Conscientiousness and intelligence, the whole General Factor of Personality, evolved in Northern populations since it was more beneficial in that environment, and to survive, this is what done to adapt to the environment through natural selection, which then led to racial differences.
Haaretz reported today that Germany was going to begin IQ testing on the ‘migrants’ to assess where talent and what occupational groups that they could put them in. This is a slightly positive change with all of the negativity this past year.
The mean IQ of Arab countries is 84 (Templer, 2010). With around 1.2 million ‘refugees’ coming from land and sea, assuming a SD of 15 (seeing as Arabs are Caucasian, I’ll assume a SD of 15), 50 percent of them fall at or below 84. So 600k at 84 or below. 16 percent fall at 100. 192k fall at 100. 12k at 120 and 1,680 fall at 130. 50 percent fall below 84. In America the average IQ for a repeat criminal is 85. With an IQ of 85, you can see that criminality begins to increase. This is due to lack of abstract thought(linked to verbal ability), which has them not think of the consequences of their actions before they act. At or below 85 is 1 in 6, 68% of the population is within 1 SD of 100, and 2.5% of people are 130 or more.
I can’t find any data on Arab testosterone at the moment, so I’ll just assume that it’s higher than Europeans due to the Arabs’ closer proximity to the equator (someone correct me if I’m wrong), as that’s why African’s testosterone is high. Due to higher average testosterone combined with low IQ, this leads to increased aggression along with increased sex crime, which is a cause for some of the sex assaults on European women by Muslim men. I can’t find anything on terrorist IQ, the closest I can find is how the FBI convinced a man with an IQ of 51 to attempt terrorist acts, though that’s an extreme case. Since low IQ is correlated highly with lack of abstract thought, it was easier for him to become convinced to do it. Like in most organizations, the more intelligent ones are at the top so they tell the lower IQ ones what to do. Though, by administering these tests, they will greatly lower their chances for another terrorist attack, seeing as those actions are correlated with low IQ.
In a study on prison inmates, IQ predicted inmate misconduct. Using a sample of 2500 inmates over 30 institutions from August 2004 to June 2006, it was found that those inmates who had higher IQs were involved in fewer incidents as well as being less likely to commit violent behavior. Verbal intelligence has been posited to be some of the cause for increased crime, seeing as verbal IQ is correlated with delinquent behavior, which is due to lack of abstract thought being correlated with lower IQ. With higher testosterone being correlated with low IQ and increased androgen sensitivity along with higher sperm counts (both are indicators of higher testosterone) being correlated negatively when measured by speed of neuronal transmission which causes a trade-off between g (general intelligence) and neuronal transmission, this shows that increased testosterone means decreased IQ. This is also seen with how higher IQ people have a lower sex drive.
I did say in my article Non-Western People are Abnormal for Our Society, that, as the title says, non-Western people are abnormal for our society due to not sharing our cultural values, which, we know is genetic. Though, higher IQ individuals will be better able to acclimate into society, as well as have a decreased proclivity to commit crime.
Since there are some evoultionary reasons for suicide bombings due to increased inbreeding this increased genetic similarity between them which led to increased altruism due to genetic similarity, by allowing those with higher IQs, this will lead to a greatly increased chance for attacks to happen as higher IQ people are better at controlling impulses.
This is a move I agree with. All countries should implement this procedure (obviously not enough to where it begins to displace the native population). With there being a cut-off limit on IQ, lets say 105 or even 110, that guarantees a high chance of those who are immigrating will be of value to the country and bring something to the table instead of the current situation with the benefits they currently receive (and lets be honest, you know these rules aren’t being followed). So by implementing this policy not only in Germany, but around the world, this would be a great thing for the West, to restrict immigration only to high-skilled workers, with a background check, intelligence test and someone with good credentials. Of course, only in sectors that really need the help. I of course advocate for the natives of any country to have first dibs when it comes to getting a job.
All in all, this is good move because a) rapes will be lessened and b) there won’t be as much individuals on welfare because there will be an (assumed) moratorium on those with lower IQs, leaving the higher IQ ones to find jobs and contribute to the economy.