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Human Mating and Aggression—An Evolutionary Perspective

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JP Rushton

Richard Lynn

L:inda Gottfredson

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1650 words

One of the many oft-repeated statements from feminists is “Who commits over 80 percent of all violent crime?! MEN!!!!” This is true. No one denies this. Is this stark disparity due to biology or culture? Anyone who reads this blog knows the answer to that question, however, a lot of people (mostly feminists and other radical leftists) disagree and, of course, believe that all differences within and between people are explainable by environmental factors.

Men commit 80 percent of all crimes. Feminists may point to this stat and say that men are more dangerous than men, and, for instance, use the crime argument for separation from men the way some people use the black crime argument as a point to argue for separation. It’s clear that people who say these things don’t understand biology, because things such as this are easily explainable.

Men average 270-1,070 ng/dl on average compared to women’s 15-70 ng/dl.This large variation in testosterone between men and women is an indication that the testosterone ‘gap’ (which should be there, biologically speaking) is the main factor in explaining the crime disparities between males and females (Dabbs et al, 1995; Batrinos, 2012).

Testosterone regulates morphological traits which are then sexually selected for (Hillgarth, Ramenofsky and Wingfield, 1997). So, in a way, testosterone itself was being selected for, as it is the mediator of all of the morphological characteristics that make Men men.

These same differences in testosterone between men and women also explain the huge variation in muscle mass and strength between men and women. Muscle mass was, potentially, a way to attract mates. Though muscle mass itself is a sexually selected trait, in terms of natural selection it is a negative. This is because the more muscle mass you have, the more calories you need to consume. Men have 61 percent more upper body strength than women and 75 percent more arm mass, which translates to 90 percent greater upper body strength in men. 99.9 percent of females fall below the male mean here, which is to be expected with what we know about anatomy and physiology in regards to the human sexes. The effect was almost as large when it came to lower body mass, with men having 50 percent more muscle mass while being 65 percent stronger than women (Lassek and Gaulin, 2009). Muscle mass is also a feature in men that gets sexually selected for (Puts, 2016)

When women are ovulating, they “show a weakness” for men with “good genes” when they are at their most fertile. This shows a causal mechanism through sexual selection for high levels of testosterone to be selected for in men, which then causes the differences in fat-free mass and aggression rates, among other variables. Indeed, we do know that, on average, women want a mate that is successful, good looking, has money, has a desire for home and children, and being a loving partner. Women, obviously, secure a man’s genes when she bears his child. So a woman would always attempt to secure the best combination of these traits in the same man (Buss and Shackelford, 2008). Sexual selection explains sex differences in aggression (Archer, 2009). So, as you can see (evolutionarily speaking), it’s women that are the cause for the so-called aggression that feminists complain about—they sexually selected us for higher levels of aggression and testosterone, then complain about it in the modern world. 

Sexual and natural selection are the causes for increased aggression/testosterone rates in men when compared to women. These traits were clearly advantageous during in our ancestral habitat, as a more aggressive mate would provide better protection and food acquisition. When organisms compete for scarce, nutritious food, mates, and space, competition increases between organisms. This can lead to injury or death (the less-able being naturally selected out of the gene pool); chronically elevated levels of testosterone associated with aggressive competition may suppress the immune system and have negative effects for health and fitness (elevated cortisol levels, which triggers fight or flight is also a negative); it may increase risk of predation since a high testosterone organism won’t notice predators around them; aggressive contests tend to be physically demanding, sapping energy; and it may damage social relationships, for instance if a male is aggressive to a female that male won’t mate and thus get selected out of the gene pool (Georgiev et al, 2013).

A study in Sweden looked at the frequency and how often men committed acts of violent crime compared to women (Trägårdh et al, 2016). They discovered that in the two decades from 1990 to 2010, there were 1,570 cases of deadly violence with men accounting for 1,420 of the cases (90.4 percent) while 150 women committed violent crime (9.6 percent). Women accounted for one-third of crimes committed against children, however, which has its basis in evolutionary psychology as well.

The risk of being killed is highest in your first year of life (Friedman and Resnick, 2007). Why? Infanticide. The mean age that mothers commit filicide at is 29.5 while the mean age of the babe is 3.5 years (Rouge-Maillart et al, 2005). The evolutionary explanation for this is that the mother still has time to conceive more children, so the fitness hit is not too large. Further, women are more likely to commit filicide if they have a second child under the age of 20 (Bourget, Grace, and Whitehurts, 2007). So obviously, the older a woman is the less of a chance there is that filicide will be committed since it would be a fitness hit since older women have less of a chance to conceive children, along with a higher chance for the child to have birth defects (Stein and Susser, 2000; Lampinen, Vehviläinen-Julkunen and Kankkunen, 2009; Jolly et al, 2000). So from an evolutionary perspective, it doesn’t make sense for a woman to kill her child if she’s about to hit the age-40 wall (Reproductive Endocrinology Infertility Committee et al, 2011; O’Reilly-Green and Cohen, 1993; van Katwjk and Peeters, 1998; Yaniv et al, 2010).

Male infanticide is associated with social monogamy in primates; male infanticide may be what causes females to stay and mate with one male (Opie et al, 2013). This is caused by females choosing to stay faithful to mates, which then drives monogamous relationships. Serial and social monogamy is the norm for humans (Brandon, 2016). This, then, goes back to what a woman looks for in a man, and has her want to stay with that one man who has all of the qualities necessary to be a good mate and father.

In sum, when feminists complain about male aggression and crime, there are substantial evolutionary underpinnings behind them. They do not even realize that even when they are fighting for ‘equality’ between the sexes, that they are directly helping our arguments that there are inherent biological, physiological and morphological differences between the sexes—driven by sexual selection—which is then a cause for a large amount of the variation in crime (and other variables) between men and women. These intrinsic differences between men and women are why we are so different from each other.The sexes also differ in the brain. There are numerous biological explanations between differences in aggression between men and women, and they come down to sexual selection and what propagated our species in during our ancestral evolution. A large cause for these differences is mate selection—which would, technically, make women the culprits, as they  selected us for these traits. The fact that these differences are still so profound in modern-day society is not at all surprising.

References

Archer, J. (2009). Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression? Behavioral and Brain Sciences,32(3-4), 249. doi:10.1017/s0140525x09990951

Batrinos, M. L. (2012). Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man. International Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism, 10(3), 563-568. doi:10.5812/ijem.3661

Bourget D, Grace J, Whitehurst L. A review of maternal and paternal filicide. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 2007, vol. 35 (pg. 74-82)

Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (2008). Attractive Women Want it All: Good Genes, Economic Investment, Parenting Proclivities, and Emotional Commitment. Evolutionary Psychology,6(1), 147470490800600. doi:10.1177/147470490800600116

Dabbs, J. M., Carr, T. S., Frady, R. L., & Riad, J. K. (1995). Testosterone, crime, and misbehavior among 692 male prison inmates. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(5), 627-633. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(94)00177-t

Friedman SH, Resnick PJ. Child murder by mothers: patterns and prevention. World Psychiatry 2007;6:137-41.

Georgiev, A. V., Klimczuk, A. C., Traficonte, D. M., & Maestripieri, D. (2013). When Violence Pays: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Animals and Humans. Evolutionary Psychology,11(3), 147470491301100. doi:10.1177/147470491301100313

Hillgarth, N., Ramenofsky, M., & Winfield, J. (1997). Testosterone and sexual selection. Behavioral Ecology,8(1), 108-109. doi:10.1093/beheco/8.1.108

Jolly, M. (2000). The risks associated with pregnancy in women aged 35 years or older. Human Reproduction,15(11), 2433-2437. doi:10.1093/humrep/15.11.2433

Lampinen, R., Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K., & Kankkunen, P. (2009). A Review of Pregnancy in Women Over 35 Years of Age. The Open Nursing Journal,3, 33-38. doi:10.2174/1874434600903010033

Lassek, W. D., & Gaulin, S. J. (2009). Costs and benefits of fat-free muscle mass in men: relationship to mating success, dietary requirements, and native immunity. Evolution and Human Behavior,30(5), 322-328. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.04.002

Opie, C., Atkinson, Q. D., Dunbar, R. I., & Shultz, S. (2013). Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,110(33), 13328-13332. doi:10.1073/pnas.1307903110

O’Reilly-Green C, Cohen W R. Pregnancy in women aged 40 and older.  Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1993;  20 313-331

Puts, D. (2016). Human sexual selection. Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 28–32. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.011

Reproductive E, Infertility C. Family physicians advisory C, maternal-fetal medicine C, executive, council of the society of O et al. Advanced reproductive age and fertility. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, Canada : JOGC. Journal d’obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC. 2011;33(11):1165–75.

Rouge-Maillart, C., Jousset, N., Gaudin, A., Bouju, B., & Penneau, M. (2005). Women Who Kill Their Children. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology,26(4), 320-326. doi:10.1097/01.paf.0000188085.11961.b2

Stein, Z., & Susser, M. (2000). The risks of having children in later life. Western Journal of Medicine,173(5), 295-296. doi:10.1136/ewjm.173.5.295

Trägårdh, K., Nilsson, T., Granath, S., & Sturup, J. (2016). A Time Trend Study of Swedish Male and Female Homicide Offenders from 1990 to 2010. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health,15(2), 125-135. doi:10.1080/14999013.2016.1152615

van Katwijk, C., & Peeters, LLH. (1998). Clinical aspects of pregnancy after the age of 35 years: a review of the literature. Human Reproduction Update 4(2):185–94.

Yaniv, S. S., Levy, A., Wiznitzer, A., Holcberg, G., Mazor, M., & Sheiner, E. (2010). A significant linear association exists between advanced maternal age and adverse perinatal outcome. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics,283(4), 755-759. doi:10.1007/s00404-010-1459-4

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26 Comments

  1. I agree, though there is definitely a role for social factors too: aggression is a behaviour that evolved to be context dependent, and poorer people are put in violence inducing situations more. Anne Campbell’s work is good for this (e.g. Campbell, A. (2013). The evolutionary psychology of women’s aggression. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 368(1631), 20130078.) where she breaks down reasons that women may have evolved to be aggressive and how poverty can create these situations. Worth a read if you haven’t already

    Like

    • RaceRealist says:

      Thanks for the paper. I came across a few articles on that while researching for this one. Going to write on it soon.

      aggression is a behaviour that evolved to be context dependent, and poorer people are put in violence inducing situations more.

      Well said. I like this. This also fits with Satoshi Kanazawa’s theory on criminals and why they have lower IQs.

      she breaks down reasons that women may have evolved to be aggressive and how poverty can create these situations. Worth a read if you haven’t already

      The benefit of aggression would be low in terms of an aggressive competition with another woman when competing with them for other males

      I’ll read that paper you linked and get back to you.

      Like

  2. Afrosapiens says:

    I’m back to PP’s dungeon, and you ?

    Like

  3. Afrosapiens says:

    Two comments that her majesty didn’t like:

    “Please, you are the one who identifies with what you perceive as genetically evolved people and say you study non-nerds like laboratory rats. Avoid humility lessons please and find a girl that your IQ can get wet.”

    “Lol, you’re such a child. It’s easy to snap people when you have the keys of the dungeon. That’s not how real men act. Real men like fair fights.

    My grown up boy toy is a 1978 VW Golf, I do all the maintenance myself and I’ve modified it a little bit. I can definitely use my hands although I also care about making them clean and flawless.

    People can be extremely complex in their personality PP. But of course, your autism can’t allow you to see those things”

    Like

    • RaceRealist says:

      Nerds will get eaten alive when shit hits the fan. He won’t answer that question where I ask him who will come out on top in such a scenario.

      Like

    • Afrosapiens says:

      Sure, geeks are only productive under emotionally comfortable conditions, with an organized society to support their existence and armies of lawyers protecting their patent rights. Bring back true darwinian selection and they get wiped out of evolution. It’s already happening actually.

      Like

    • RaceRealist says:

      Exactly. Look at it in terms of evolutionary history. The lower test person would have, more than likely, been selected out of the gene pool. Women like higher test men because it means more muscle and strength which is good for protection and being aggressive towards predators.

      If an asteroid were to hit the earth tomorrow and completely decimate society, they’d get eaten. The strong will beat the weak, more often than not.

      Like

  4. Hey, this has nothing to do with this particular article, but I wanted to ask if you have any knowledge on the genetic aspects of the Iberian population, as from reading some of your articles you appear be kind of an ‘expert’ on this matter. Being part Iberian myself (Portuguese and Spanish) I wanted to know if the whole “Spaniards are mixed with Arabs and Negroes” talk has any basis on reality or is it just more Nordicist drivel. Thank you, have a good day.

    Like

    • RaceRealist says:

      Read:

      http://www.city-data.com/forum/europe/2010631-non-european-admixture-iberians.html

      It looks to be that on the order of ~10 percent of the ancestry is due to migration from North Africa. In my judgement this isn’t really that much, considering that most of Spain was ruled by Muslims for 400 years (Muslim power was in sharp recession by 1200, and the conquest of Granada nearly 300 years later was really just a mopping up expedition).

      All Non-Basque Spaniards Do Have Moorish Admixture

      Our analysis assumed three putative source populations for ancestry in Europeans: German, Saharawi, and Qatari. Estimates of North African ancestry range between 5% and 14% in the European populations and trends of the overall ancestry clines are concordant with ADMIXTURE.

      Gene flow from North Africa contributes to differential human genetic diversity in southern Europe

      The Spanish are homogeneous within themselves.

      All European ethnies have low levels of non-European admixture. It’s minute.

      All European ethnies cluster together; the Spanish and Portuguese are no different.

      Genes mirror geography within europe

      So obviously any non-European admixture isn’t significant enough to have them cluster outside of the European cluster.

      Like

    • iffen says:

      RR,

      Is North African more precisely defined. I have always considered North Africans as white, for example, the Berbers. Are Somalis considered North African? I wonder where 2nd and 3rd generation Somalis will fall out in the black/white racial divide in the US?

      Like

    • RaceRealist says:

      Iffen, Berbers are Arabized Caucasoids.

      Berbers live in groups scattered across NorthAfrica whose origins and genetic relationships with their neighbours are not well established. The first hypervariablesegment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced in a total of 155 individuals from three Tunisian Berber groups and compared to other North Africans. The mtDNA lineages found belong to a common set of mtDNA haplogroups already described in NorthAfrica. Besides the autochthonous North African U6 haplogroup, a group of L3 lineages characterized by the transition at position 16041 seems to be restricted to North Africans, suggesting that an expansion of this group of lineages took place around 10500 years ago in NorthAfrica, and spread to neighbouring populations. Principal components and the coordinate analyses show that some Berber groups (the Tuareg, the Mozabite, and the Chenini-Douiret) are outliers within the NorthAfrican genetic landscape. This outlier position is consistent with an isolation process followed by genetic drift in haplotypefrequencies, and with the high heterogeneity displayed by Berbers compared to Arab samples as shown in the AMOVA. Despite this Berber heterogeneity, no significant differences were found between Berber and Arab samples, suggesting that the Arabization was mainly a cultural process rather than a demographic replacement.

      Mitochondrial DNA heterogeneity in Tunisian Berbers

      Somalis and Ethiopians are intermediate between Caucasian and African populations; Ethiopians are 40 percent Caucasian.

      Anyway, the gist of these collected DNA studies is that Ethiopians are about 40% Caucasian, and are genetically a little more closely related to Mediterranean Caucasian groups like Berbers and Arabs than Western Africans, as is shown by this twig map. The actual amount of admixture varies from one group to another, but 40% is the average of all these samples. There is a Y chromosome study here that goes into more detail.

      Ethiopian DNA studies and sundries.
      So they both are an admixed population.

      Like

  5. Thak you so much, I don’t quite understand all the technical writing or the graphs so much in the studies you cited, but it made things much clearer. I’ll be starting college this year, coursing biology, so I hope I’ll be able to undertand things in a much better way. Again, thank you.

    Like

    • RaceRealist says:

      You’re welcome.

      Biology is a great major. I’m currently taking it. You’ll love it.

      Any questions you have I’m more than happy to ask.

      For anything on genetics see Razib and Dienekes. They have tons of relevant articles in regards to human population genetics.

      Like

  6. Afrosapiens says:

    PP keeps on trashing me while I’m banned.

    PP:

    “We couldn’t meet in real life. People like Afro & RR wouldn’t be able to gain access to the type of venues where they could meet someone like me. Sadly Ottawa’s an incredibly elitist city.”

    Me (in moderation):

    “Lol, I go clubbing in Monaco, Cannes, Nice and Saint-Tropez like it’s my house. Ottawa ? ROFL !

    Let’s imagine we had to do something like that. I’d team with RR, MeLo and Mikey. Four young good looking dark boys, it’d be a massacre.
    First we book tables in two or three of the best clubs. Then by 7pm we start hanging out in town, finding places to eat and drink, we hit on girls until we have 2 or three 3 each. You know like, “hey what you’re doing tonight ? We’re from the US and France, we’ve booked tables in club X, Y and Z, wanna join ?” (model faces, six-pack touching, instagram checking, pecs bouncing, good jokes, compliments…).

    Midnight, we hit the club, skipping the line 4 dark dudes, 8-12 model chicks. Champagne, Grey Goose, DJ play that song for Mikey to make his second baby. Now let’s hit the next club, and then the next club. 7am now we’re almost thirty in the hotel room and the party is just beginning.”

    GondwanaMan:

    “Yeah, hey, why not Afro?

    I’m beginning to think Pumpkin really is a Racist!!!! (and of course, that’s the worst thing one could possibly be!!)”

    PP:

    “LOL! There’s not that much racism in Ottawa anymore. I’ve never been to a bar where even the darkest skinned blacks are not welcome, but i have been to plenty where Afro would not get past the bouncer.

    He just doesn’t have the right look and he lacks the subtlety and quiet social graces of the truly upper class. He lacks an aesthetic sense & his appearance & mannerism are vulgar & crude. The type of blacks elite whites want to hang with have dreadlocks & have exotic taste in art, cinema & music, not someone who looks & acts like he should be in a beyonce video.”

    Me (in moderation):

    “” He lacks an aesthetic sense & his appearance & mannerism are vulgar & crude.”

    Said the guy who likes talk shows and horror movies. ROFL !
    Poor guy, you’d be extraterrestrial in any upper class event.

    “The type of blacks elite whites want to hang with have dreadlocks & have exotic taste in art, cinema & music, not someone who looks & acts like he should be in a beyonce video.”

    Start a comedy show my friend. No self respecting dude would wear dreadlocks past age 20. If I came with dreads at the office, my colleagues would be like “everything’s OK ?”. Dreads are dirty.

    And I’m a great fine arts enthusiast. I can talk about Frida Kahlo for hours, I know the best galleries, follow the auction… In short, you don’t know me, neither do you know what you’re talking about.”

    Like

  7. giulia says:

    As a woman, I have never complained when a good handsome man umps over me.. BUT SORY, GENTLEMEN! I SAID A GOOD HANDSOME MAN! NOT A RPMITIVE HORRIBLE AFRICAN MIGRANT!

    That’s why I am a feminist.

    Cannot stand ugly men who are also stupids.

    Like

    • RaceRealist says:

      That’s why I am a feminist.

      You’re a feminist because ugly, stupid men try to talk to you? Do you believe that males and females are equal (or have the capacity to be equal)?

      Like

  8. giulia says:

    sorry for the typing mistakes. I am in bed with my pc.

    Like

    • iffen says:

      “I am in bed with my pc.”

      You would be better off with a man, any man, even an ugly man.

      Like

    • giulia says:

      In reality I am not a feminist, I was joking. But if a nice boy of my ethnicity jumps over me, we can manage an accord; but I don’t accept that for the same ‘testosterone’ reason I should manage the same accord with africans and arabs ( whom I find horribles ).

      Women choose with whom and on how reproduce: and we tend to discharge those we feel having a non desirable genetic. Among semitic and hamitic races the word’ being desirable’, is really rare. At least a lot o women I know think and I think so. Are we feminists, because we say NO?

      Like

    • RaceRealist says:

      I agree with you. I recall another commenter, Sophic Drippins, who said to me a few months back that women, in part drive evolution. I’m beginning to come around to that notion now that I’m reading Descent of Man by Charles Darwin.

      At least a lot o women I know think and I think so. Are we feminists, because we say NO?

      No. That’s your personal choice. However, you are a feminist if you believe the sexes are the same both cognitively and physically. Do you believe this?

      Read: There Is Such a Thing As “Male” and “Female” Brain

      Like

  9. giulia says:

    not ugly, thanks.

    Like

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