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HBD and Sports: Football

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JP Rushton

Richard Lynn

L:inda Gottfredson

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2000 words

In my first post in this series, I talked about HBD and Baseball. With the Super Bowl being tomorrow, I figured I’d talk about HBD and how it fits in to football.

According to TIDES (The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sports), in 2014, the racial mix of the NFL was 68.7 percent black, 28.6 percent white, “Latinos” at .7 percent, Asian at 1.1 percent and Pacific Islanders at .9 percent. International players made up the last 1 percent.

That’s basically the reverse ethnicity for baseball which is 75 percent white, 23 percent black and 2 percent Asian in 2014. As you see, when we start talking about sports with more athleticism involved, the number of blacks increases. With a more timing-based sport, such as baseball, they will be a lower portion of the racial mix in baseball, seeing as timing based (reaction time) sports are geared more towards people with high IQs, seeing as there is a high correlation between IQ and reaction time.

Blacks are over-represented in the NFL due to evolutionary selection pressures in the sub-Saharan desert. Africans have longer limbs, can sprint for longer distances and have higher stamina. This works out with what they had to do in Sub-Saharan Africa. They had to chase food, chuck spears etc.

Those longer limbs help them get them more space from defenders, allowing them to catch the ball at the highest point. Evolution also gave an advantage for jumping as well.

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The above chart gives a racial breakdown of positions by race in the NFL, and what I will be referencing for the rest of this article.

The Center position (the one who snaps the ball to the QB) is majority white. That position requires the use of type I muscle fibers. Those fibers, which use oxygen to fire, which takes longer to get going, can go for a longer period of time before tiring out. The force per contraction of the muscle is spread out over time. So because those fibers take longer to get going, the white Center has a physiological advantage, on average, over black Centers. Their muscle fiber typing helps them

Conversely, for the speed positions (RB, WR, somewhat CB), those fibers fire without oxygen (so they fire anaerobically), they fire extremely quickly, and also tire out just as fast as they fire off. Because the muscle generates so much force in such a small period of time, this is better for those positions that take near pure speed, agility and quickness (there is a difference). Agility is defined as the ability to be quick and graceful. Speed is defined as the rate at which someone or something is able to move or operate. Quickness is defined as a high rate of movement or performance.

This is why CB is majority black. It takes an extreme amount of athleticism to be able to do what CBs do. They need to be quick off the snap, stay with the WR and then be able to react quickly for an interception or a tackle.

DE is another position that is majority black. That position is used to pressure the QB into throwing the ball before he’s ready. DEs also have longer limbs, which is helpful when attempting to maneuver around the Tackle to get to the QB. This is another position where those fast twitch muscle fibers come in handy.

DTs need to be at least 260 pounds. They need to be quick off the ball and have good vision to see above and around the Offensive Tackles. This is where the height advantage of blacks is again useful. Their longer limbs also has theme excel at this position.

Fullbacks are equally white and black. You need to be a big body to be able to block, you don’t need to be too quick, but be able to exert force for a small amount of time so you can block the defender who’s attempting to tackle the RB or another player who has the ball.

Guards, again are equally black and white. The same intangibles that hold for Centers also hold true for guards. All players on the offensive line are pretty damn big, long limbs again is a positive trait for those positions, with blacks obviously having the advantage there. But as I noted with Centers, they need to be able to hold a block, so the slow twitch muscle fibers of the white players help them there. The type II fibers of blacks also help on the offensive line, as their muscle fibers allow them to exert more force in a shorter amount of time, pushing back the defender so the one with the ball has a lane to get through.

Kickers are all white. This makes sense. Again, as this whole post is basically about, this comes down to differing amounts of type I muscle fibers between the races. Punters are needed to kick a ball, at times over 55 yards. This is where those slow twitch muscle fibers come in handy, and the reason why there are no black kickers.

Linebackers are majority black. They are called “the QBs of the defense”. You can see this where the MLB (the one who is the “QB” of the defense) directing calls and sometimes calling audibles. It doesn’t give a breakdown of Middle and Outside linebackers by race, but I’d assume that more MLBs are white, and more OLBs are black. The OLBs use their speed and agility to attempt a sack on the QB while the MLB needs to know where the ball is at all times.

Long snappers are all white. The long snapper is a Center who snaps the ball more than 15 yards during punts and 7 to 8 yards during field goals and extra point attempts.

The NT position is all black. A NT is the middle man on the defensive line in a 3-4 defense (3 down linemen, 4 linebackers as opposed to a 4-3 defense with 4 down linemen and 3 linebackers). The position is called “nose tackle” because the linemen lines up over the nose of the ball. The NT is usually the biggest player on the defense and pushes through the line to get to the QB to put pressure on him.

The same things that apply to punters, also apply to kickers.

Just what I was waiting for. QB. 65 white QBs compared to 14 black QBs. Why? Because the QB is, on average, the most intelligent player in the offense. He needs to remember calls, plays, audibles, needs to be calm under pressure and be analytical in where the ball is placed when there is a defender right on top of his receiver. Most all of the good QBs in the NFL are white. Those QBs in the NFL who are black, mostly are running QBs. That gets one dimensional over time, and the defense can better cue in to what the QB is doing so it gets stopped more often. The QB position is a proxy, IMO, for racial differences in intelligence because intelligence is a pretty big factor in regards to the QB position. To be able to think slightly into the future on where you need to throw the ball so your receiver can get to the ball away from the defender, to changing plays when you see a defensive alignment that doesn’t look right with the offensive alignment you already have called, the QB needs to be a highly intelligent person. Most black QBs are only liked because they make the game more exciting by 1) keeping the defense on their toes and 2) they break off huge runs when all players are covered and there is no one to tackle the QB.

Running backs are majority black. They need agility, quickness and speed to be able to shake defenders. Long limbs also help with covering more ground per step. This is why those players, such as Chris Johnson, had a 40 time of 4.24 seconds. Those with the fast twitch fibers are West African descended while those blacks with slow twitch fibers are East African descended. Most power backs are white in the NFL, which again comes back to slow twitch muscle fibers. They are usually stronger than those speed backs.

Safetys are majority black. As is the case with CB, safetys need the athleticism, long limbs, speed, quickness, agility and vision to be able to anticipate where the ball is, and then they need to be able to have the speed and agility to get to where the ball is on time, before a member of the opposing team has a chance to get to the ball.

Tackles, again are basically even, the same things apply for Guards and Centers.

Tight end is another position that’s about even. You need a bigger body to be able to position yourself better than the defender that’s covering you. Along with that bigger body comes longer limbs to be able to catch the ball at its highest point so the defender can’t tip or intercept the ball. You have some tightends, such as Vernon Davis, who are tall and have good speed. But he’s a rarity in tight ends in the NFL. The tightend is usually another blocker for the QB, so he needs the slow twitch muscle fibers. As I have alluded to above, the slow twitch muscle fibers have tightends able to hold blocks for a longer amount of time.

Finally, wide receiver is majority black. The same things as the other skill positions (RB, TE, QB), you need to have a big body to catch the ball at its highest point. They also need speed, quickness and agility to be able to get separation from the defender. You have some wide receivers who are short, but extremely fast like Washington Redskins receiver Desean Jackson, with a 4.35 40 time.

In this study by Wagner and Heyward, they note that biological differences exist between blacks and whites. They reviewed the literature on the differences between blacks and whites in fat free body mass (water, mineral and protein) fat patterning and body dimensions and proportions. Blacks, in general, have greater bone mineral density and body protein content than do whites, resulting in lower fat-free bone density. They also note racial differences in the differences of subcutaneous body fat, which is the body fat that’s just below the skin, as opposed to visceral body fat which is found in the peritoneal cavity, which can be measured with calipers to give a rough estimate of total body fat adiposity. The conclusion reached in the study was that differences in FFB (fat free body) was statistically significant between blacks and whites. They also have a greater BMC (bone mineral content) and BMD (bone mineral density) than do whites. They also argue that for a given BMI (body mass index), blacks might have less adiposity because they tend to be more mesomorphic. Researchers push for the development of racial-specific equations to better see differences in FFB.

The two races also differ in the width of hips, which less wide hips are better for more speed production in comparison to whites who have wider hips on average.

Differences in body type (somatype) are also linked to race. As I noted above, blacks skew more towards mesomorphy. Whites do as well, but it’s more prevalent in blacks. Endomorphs skew more towards Asians and whites. Ectomorphs skew more towards Asian populations.

In conclusion, football proves HBD right as well. The racial mix of differing positions, as well as strengths and weaknesses with them, show the reasons for certain races performing better than other races in certain positions. Innate physiological differences in blacks and whites show why there are racial disparities in all sports. Because of lower average fat mass in blacks, this allows for more speed because there is less body fat to weigh them down, on average. Somatypes also, roughly correlate with race.

We know and accept physical differences between the races that lead to over or underrepresentation in sports, but once someone brings up intelligence differences, you get shunned. So we all have the ability to be as intelligent as any other individual? Blacks have this innate advantage to be good at sports, but whites and Asians don’t get to say they are more intelligent on average?

Football is one of the 4 major sports in America that proves HBD.

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